- How drugs work
- Reproduction and growth of a colony of bacteria and protozoan microorganisms
- Microorganism nutrition
- Bacterial death and colony degeneration
- Varieties of biological products
- Aerobic preparations for automated VOS
- Anaerobic drugs
- Special additives
- What substances to use
- Hike to the centralized sewage treatment plant
- Preparations from Europe
- CIS production
This article will tell you about biological products for septic tanks, as one of the means for effective local wastewater treatment. An understanding of the principle of action and an overview of the most popular bioactivators will help you choose a drug specifically for your treatment plant..
The choice of a septic tank as the main treatment plant for domestic wastewater solves many problems associated with the pumping of biological masses and their disposal. Unfortunately, the operating mode of these installations is not completely autonomous, and the processing capacity in them is limited by the volume of the working chambers. It is possible to increase the productivity of treatment facilities by using special active preparations that accelerate the process of wastewater treatment and increase the period between cleaning the septic tank from waste sludge.It is very important to approach the choice of biological treatment products intelligently and competently, based on local conditions and the specifics of the septic tank. If you understand how biological activators work, it is not so difficult to choose a drug: each of the funds has an annotation insert, which indicates both the type of bacteria used and the features of their use, as well as the presence of additives and the frequency of adding the substance to the processed mass.
How drugs work
When disposing of contaminated wastewater, as a rule, the second stage of treatment after mechanical treatment is biological decomposition, which is the result of the natural life cycle of microorganisms. Its course is accompanied by a number of complex and invisible to the human eye processes.
Reproduction and growth of a colony of bacteria and protozoan microorganisms
Like any form of life, the bacterial mass tends to grow and develop. This is possible if:
- a stable temperature of a certain value (from 10 ° C) is maintained in the environment;
- the proportion of molecularly unbound water in the mass is at least 30%;
- the biomass in which bacteria live does not contain aldehydes, chlorine and other toxic substances designed to fight microorganisms, as well as antibiotic components;
- the level of acidity of the masses optimal for the bacteria used (can be specified on the label).
Understanding these points is a key aspect of the correct use of biologics. Even the most expensive and effective septic tank additive will not work if at least three of the following are not followed..
The bacteria feed on organic compounds, converting them into an aqueous solution of elementary trace elements and minerals, which is practically odorless and can be used as irrigation water for the backyard. The source of food for the colonies can be any organic matter, including paper, plants, fecal matter and the remains of the dead bacteria themselves. Naturally, in the absence of a constant food source in sufficient quantities, organisms die en masse. That is why it is important to keep the septic tank in constant operation. However, a number of drugs help to quickly resume processing activity even after a long inactivity of the water treatment plant (WWTP).
Bacterial death and colony degeneration
Due to the fact that the conditions for the stay of bacteria in the septic tank cannot be called optimal, organisms gradually reduce their numbers after the peak of growth. The result is waste sludge containing the remains of dead bacteria. It would be wise to use drugs that contain several different types of bacteria, present in different strains. The diversity of microflora helps to increase the number of processing cycles and reduce the final volume of waste sludge: some strains are able to use it as food. By the way, the spent mass effectively sorbs nitrates and phosphates contained in household chemicals, and therefore its periodic extraction cannot be avoided: at a critical concentration of chemicals there is a risk of killing the entire colony completely.
Varieties of biological products
Microorganisms for sewage treatment plants are classified according to biological systematics, and preparations containing them are presented in several categories. Despite this, components of activators for local WWTP are rarely produced in their original form, but are combined to achieve the best efficiency. It is a successful combination of components that is a hallmark of a good biological product for a septic tank..
It should be noted that bioactivators, drugs and bacteria for septic tanks are not separate types of products. This is only the name of a group of biologically active substances, which does not prevent many manufacturers from choosing more and more creative names for their products. In total, three main types of bioactive components can be distinguished, which have fundamental differences..
Aerobic preparations for automated VOS
For use in aerotanks, certain types of bacteria are priority, with a number of features:
- short life cycle;
- high activity in nutrition and reproduction;
- a large number of bacteria within one colony;
- the need for oxygen for active work;
- selectivity in processed substances;
- high sensitivity to toxic compounds.
This type of biologics is the most common due to its versatility. For a local treatment plant, processing speed and throughput are important, which active microorganisms are quite capable of providing. They multiply rapidly and need abundant nutrition. On the other hand, the purified liquid is characterized by a high content of unprocessed compounds. The disadvantage of this type of activator is the need for periodic addition of a certain amount of the drug to the VOC chamber..
There are certain types of microorganisms that do not need aeration. Their use is not limited to chambers of stationary sedimentation tanks for long fermentation, although it is the main one. There are a number of distinctive qualities of this type of bacteria that you need to remember:
- These bacteria have a longer lifespan than aerobic bacteria, and therefore forced replenishment of the colony is performed less often..
- They are distinguished by low vital activity, therefore, wastewater processing takes more time;
- Anaerobic microorganisms recycle almost all organic compounds, resulting in a higher quality waste fluid.
- The large size and complex structure of bacteria makes them the least susceptible to aggressive chemicals.
It is advisable to use drugs in a septic tank that include some strains of anaerobic bacteria. This will increase the quality of treatment and reduce the amount of waste sludge.
Like all living organisms, bacteria need an additional source of nutrients containing important trace elements that stimulate growth and increase longevity. There is a separate type of drugs, in which the main enzymes and mineral mixtures prevail, which make up the lack of nutrients in bacteria. Among other things, the use of a number of components allows you to maintain a high temperature in the sedimentation tanks during the winter period, which is ensured by the high vital activity of microorganisms.
Separately, such substances are produced, as a rule, for industrial VOS, but their presence in common biological products plays an important role. This should also be considered when choosing a drug for a home septic tank. Most often, specialized additives are present in the composition of foreign-made activators..
What substances to use
There are three main sources of biologics for the home. Activators, which can be purchased from distributors, are presented in a wide range for the needs of the buyer, and their effectiveness directly depends on the price.
Hike to the centralized sewage treatment plant
At central wastewater treatment plants, biological products are used in large volumes and are of the highest quality. Almost all products are available in powder or liquid form and cannot be found commercially. But if there is an opportunity to get at least activated sludge, you should definitely use it: you will have to clean the septic tank no more often than once a year, and the processing capacity will increase by 50–70%. You should also clarify the content of active chemical compounds, so as not to harm your purification device..
Preparations from Europe
Today there is an opportunity to purchase biological products for septic tanks of European production. They are distinguished by the best balance of composition and high quality bacteria. So, although Sanex preparations made in Poland require monthly use, they contain many different strains of bacteria and include basic enzymes in the composition, which contributes to the rapid decomposition of almost all types of organic matter..
The lines of JPR System and MYCROZYME (Czech Republic), as well as Septifos Vigor and EPARCYL (France) contain both preparations for starting and maintaining the performance of a septic tank, and specialized biocomponents designed to fight fats and complex organic compounds of a fine fraction. The European manufacturer is also distinguished by the price: a set of drugs for annual maintenance of a septic tank will cost 35-50 dollars. The basis of the preparations is anaerobic bacteria, so they are best suited for aeration tanks.
The most common drugs on the Russian market are domestically produced or franchised by foreign companies. Due to competition and high demand, their quality is constantly improving, although in terms of reliability they are much inferior to foreign counterparts.
The choice of Russian and Ukrainian drugs is very diverse: Biotel, Doctor Robik, Vodogray and others. There are no particular differences between manufacturers, since almost all drugs consist of a combination of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in approximately equal proportions. Domestic activators show good performance both in septic tanks and in drain pits. With the systematic use of domestic drugs, it is possible to increase the throughput of the septic tank up to 20-30% and to remove the sludge only twice a year. Noteworthy is the SANEKS trademark, whose products are manufactured in Russia. This series includes a large number of different types of bioactivators, allowing you to make the best match for the selection. There is also a detailed description of the composition of each drug on the insert.
In conclusion, we will give some useful recommendations:
- Unfortunately, many commercial figures treat the needs of the buyer in bad faith, offering them mixtures in foreign packaging that either have nothing to do with biological products or are an expired product of another brand. It is necessary to beware of fakes: it will be useful to ask the seller for a product certificate.
- The capabilities of most drugs appear only over time and only with systematic use. Therefore, you do not need to give up a new product due to the fact that the effect is not visible after only a week after application..
- The conditions in a septic tank are usually less than optimal, which makes certain bacteria more or less active. Accordingly, the same drug can demonstrate different efficacy in different conditions..
- You can always experiment with drugs. It is better to add biologics from different manufacturers, thereby increasing the variety of species.