- Rules for installing sockets and switches
- The choice of a socket box depending on the type and material of the walls
- Niche or hole preparation
- Concrete, foam concrete, brick
- Drywall or other sheet material
- Method of cable supply and laying
- Installing and securing the socket
It is not necessary to look for a specialist to install outlets and switches. These works can be done by yourself and no worse than professional workers. It is enough to adhere to simple rules and comply with the requirements of the standards. For everything to work out neatly, you will have to purchase or borrow part of the tool.
Rules for installing sockets and switches
The position of the sockets on the walls is determined in accordance with the tasks set, the distribution of household and multimedia equipment and convenience. Existing standards define the requirements for the distribution of sockets and switches, and this concerns the permissible distances from the installation site from fences, openings and the floor:
- Distance from the floor in living quarters – 30 cm for sockets and 90 for switches and dimmers.
- Distance from the floor for sockets in the kitchen – 110-120 cm (for a washing machine, dishwasher, a height of 100 cm is allowed).
- Distance from adjacent walls, partitions and other stationary objects – 15 cm.
- Groups of sockets and switches are mounted horizontally in line with each other.
- Distance between centers of two outlets in a group – 71 mm.
All distances are measured, starting from the level of the finishing flooring and wall cladding, which should be taken into account when preparing the socket boxes at the initial stages of repair.
The choice of a socket box depending on the type and material of the walls
Today only plastic is used as a material for mounting boxes. When choosing, you should focus on the following characteristics:
- Installation method. Into solid or hollow walls. The latter have special clamps for fastening to drywall or other sheet wall material.
- Dimensions. The standard socket diameter is 71 mm, with varying depth. Conventional sockets are installed in boxes with a depth of 45 mm, dimmers and special switches and sockets in recessed sockets 60 mm.
- Single or butt. Butt, composite socket outlets have a special protrusion in the lower part for grouping them in a row with the formation of a channel for laying the switching bus. Ready-made combinations of combined 2 or 4 socket boxes are also available.
- The presence of mounts. Along the edges of the front of the box there are self-tapping stands for fixing the sockets with the corresponding perforation on the mounting plate.
Indicate the places where the socket boxes will be installed. The position of the outlet center is marked as required. Draw a vertical and horizontal line at the level with an intersection at the marked point. Draw a circle with a diameter of 72 mm. In brick walls, it is desirable that the center of the mark falls on the body of the brick, and not on the seam, in plasterboard partitions – excluding entry into the frame profile.
Niche or hole preparation
How a niche will be prepared for installing a socket outlet is determined in accordance with the design of the wall or partition and the material from which it is made.
The design determines the order of actions:
- Corpulent (concrete, brick, foam concrete, etc.).
- Hollow (drywall, chipboard, etc.).
In accordance with the material of the walls, the tool and methods of sampling material from the niche are selected.
Concrete, foam concrete, brick
There are three ways to drill a hole:
- Angle grinder and diamond wheel.
- Drilling holes in a circle.
- Using a crown of the correct diameter.
Using angle grinder (grinder)
With the help of an angle grinder (grinder) and a diamond wheel, two horizontal cuts are made along the upper and lower boundaries of the circle and two vertical cuts on the sides. The cuts are made so that the notch depth is at least 45 mm at all corners. Next, using a chisel and a hammer, the material inside is selected.
The disadvantages of the method are huge: dust in colossal quantities, the exit of the slots far beyond what is required, a square depression instead of a round one – an increase in the volume of the solution for filling.
Using a punch and drill
Drilling around the circumference of the future deepening allows you to cope more accurately. Used concrete drill bits with a diameter of 6-8 mm. It is better to drill directly along the marked circle or from its outer side along tangents. The distance between each new drilling is about 8-10 mm.
Next, all the material inside the circle is selected to the required depth. A simple and reliable option that does not require additional investments other than time.
Perforator and crown
The most efficient way is to use a 68 mm bit with victorious teeth or diamond coating. For foam concrete, it is allowed to use a plasterboard crown:
- Make a groove in the center of the mark.
- Fix the crown in the punch, set the stop to a depth of 55-60 mm.
- Place the drill in the center of the crown against the prepared recess. Start drilling gradually with several short runs.
- As it deepens, take out the crown and remove concrete dust and chips.
- After passing to the full depth, remove the crown and free up space from the concrete for the socket using a chisel and a hammer or a hammer drill with a spatula, then level the bottom of the resulting niche.
Drywall or other sheet material
A special plasterboard crown with teeth of 68 mm in diameter is used. Use a screwdriver or bump stop to prepare a recess in the center of the mark. Attach the bit to the drill chuck. Drill the drywall with a drill from the crown and then the hole for the socket.
If there is no crown at hand, a 6–8 mm drill is used to drill holes around the circumference of the mark, then the central part is removed. The edges are leveled with a file.
Method of cable supply and laying
The wires are led to the installation site of the sockets in the strobe, which is done before the installation of the socket outlets. In hollow partitions, the cable is laid exclusively in a protective corrugation with fastening along the frame posts.
Installing and securing the socket
The socket must be installed so that the mounts for the outlet or switch are strictly horizontal. The socket box is fixed with a mortar in a brick, concrete or aerated concrete wall or with clamps in hollow partitions and sheathed walls.
Difficulties may appear when installing a block of combined socket boxes. Even small skews in height and slope will lead to the fact that the sockets or switches will be slightly offset to each other, which visually looks ugly.
A fairly simple trick will help. Prepare an aluminum or steel corner 40 mm longer than the width of the prepared niche by 20 cm. Along the edges of the corner, stepping back 2 cm, drill two more holes. By fixing the socket outlets on the corner, it will be possible to insert them evenly and fix them in one level without distortions. Holes in the edges will help to firmly press the structure against the wall.
For fixing with mortar:
- Pre-prime the hole in the wall.
- Mix mortar or alabaster.
- Apply a layer of mortar on the inner surface so that when the socket is inserted, part protrudes outward, and the back wall unambiguously rests on the solution.
- Pass the cable through the technical opening of the socket. Push in the socket forcibly and level it.
- Remove excess solution.
Continue the installation of sockets and switches after the solution has completely dried, at least in a day.
For mounting in hollow walls:
- Remove the mounting plates from the socket.
- Insert a supply of cable into the technological hole and secure the protective corrugation with a nylon tie. Install the socket into the prepared hole.
- Insert the plates into the slots on the bottom of the socket and tighten with the screws or self-tapping screws from the kit to the socket.
Before tightening the fasteners, the installation level must be verified strictly in the horizontal plane. Sockets and switches can be installed immediately after installing the socket.