- Building codes governing the location of buildings
- Sanitary requirements for site planning
- Fire safety rules for placing objects on the site
- Environmental construction standards
- What threatens non-compliance with the norms for the location of buildings
When contemplating the construction of residential or business buildings in individual housing construction and garden associations, you need to familiarize yourself with the requirements of regulatory documents: construction, environmental, sanitary and fire safety, regulating the location of capital construction projects relative to each other, neighbors, water sources, and so on..
After obtaining the right to use the land and the right to build, planning of the site structure begins. The construction of residential buildings is carried out for long-term operation and must ensure:
- legalization of the building;
- security of residence;
- convenience of living;
- safety and convenience of neighbors;
- unimpeded movement of people and vehicles in public places;
- no negative impact on water sources, flora and fauna of the area.
Therefore, the layout of the site and the mutual arrangement of its elements must be thought out in advance and comply with the rules and regulations..
Building codes governing the location of buildings
In case of private development, you need to remember about the “red line” (clause 11, article 1 of the Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation) – the border between your site and common areas, as well as other people’s private land holdings. When installing a fence, the border with the street must be observed literally. If the fence is located almost on the red line, then the wicket and gate can only open inward. The doors should not cross this conditional line, creating possible inconvenience for passers-by, cyclists, drivers.
The main regulatory document that defines the minimum distances to various economic and natural objects are mandatory (not recommended) for the execution of SNiP 30-02-97. According to them, the distance to the red line in accordance with clause 6.6 should not be less:
- residential building – 5 m from the street and 3 m from the passage (the street has a name, the passage does not);
- outbuildings – 5 m from the street and from the passage.
The fence is the boundary of your site, but this does not mean that you can place buildings and plantings in the internal space without restrictions. The crowns of trees should not block the sidewalks and overhang unnecessarily over the neighboring area, the sounds and smells of residential and utility buildings should not interfere with passers-by and neighbors. Distances to the fence between the plots can be changed by agreement with the neighbors, certified by a notary.
Minimum standardized distances from the boundary between the sections to objects (clause 6.7):
- residential building – 3.0 m;
- poultry house, barn, pigsty, etc. – 4.0 m;
- greenhouse with organic fertilization – 4.0 m;
- garage, shed – 1.0 m (but the water drain from the roof, according to clause 7.5, cannot be organized on a neighboring site – the roof slope is oriented to its site);
- bathhouse, sauna, shower, toilet – 2.5 m (for more details, see the Sanitary Requirements section);
- tall trees – 4.0 m;
- medium-sized trees – 2.0 m;
- bushes – 1.0 m.
Distances from buildings are measured from the basement or wall, if there are no decorative elements that protrude further than 500 mm. The distance between the green space and the fence is measured to the conventional center of the trunk. The abundantly overgrown crown of a tree, with proper planting, cannot serve as a reason for claims from neighbors.
When planning a site, keep in mind that according to clause 6.13, the joint area of structures (house, outbuildings, gazebo, garage), sites and paths cannot occupy more than 30% of the entire site. The rest of the space is a green area, you cannot pave the entire yard.
Attention! A permanent fence can be installed only after entering the boundaries of your site in the cadastral plan. For the period of legalization, the role of the fence can be played by a mesh-netting stretched over the posts. The height of the permanent fence should not exceed 1.5 m in order not to shade the area of the neighbors.
Maximum permissible parameters for the development of residential areas for low-rise individual construction
Building factor (Ks) Is the ratio of the area occupied by buildings and structures to the area of the site.
Building density coefficient (Kpz) – the ratio of the area of all floors of buildings and structures to the area of the site.
Building type Land plot size, m2 Residential building area, m2 total area Building factor Ks Building density coefficient, Kpz AND 1200 and more 480 0.2 0,4 1000 400 0.2 0,4 800 320 (480) * 0.2 (0.3) * 0.4 (0.6) * B 600 360 0.3 0.6 500 300 0.3 0.6 400 240 0.3 0.6 300 240 0,4 0.8 IN 200 160 0,4 0.8 one hundred one hundred 0.5 1.0
AND– Manor buildings of a rural-urban type with a plot size of 1000-1200 m2 and more with a developed economic part.
B– urban cottage-type buildings with a plot size of 400 to 800 m2 and cottage-block type (2-4 apartment block houses with plots of 300-400 m2 with a minimum economic part).
IN– block-type multi-apartment buildings with plots of 100-300 m2.
* In brackets – permissible parameters for cottage development.
1. With the size of land plots over 1200 m2 the area of a residential building is not standardized at KZ? 0.2 and Kpz? 0,4.
2. When the size of the land plots near the apartment is less than 100 m2 tuning density (Kpz) should not exceed 1.2. At the same time, KZ is not standardized subject to sanitary and hygienic and fire safety requirements.
Sanitary requirements for site planning
When planning a site, special attention should be paid to sanitary standards, because they are aimed at preserving people’s health. SNiP 30-02-97 give the minimum distances that must be maintained between buildings for sanitary reasons (clause 6.8).
- house and cellar – more than 12.0 m from the toilet, poultry house, small livestock housing;
- house and cellar – more than 8.0 m from the shower, sauna, bath;
- well – more than 8.0 m from the toilet, compost heap, septic tank.
When planning construction, make sure that these distances are observed in relation to buildings in adjacent areas..
If the room for birds, goats, piglets has a common wall with a residential house, the entrance to it must be isolated, at a distance of at least 7.0 m from the front door to the house (clause 6.9). To the adjacent section, the distance from such a block should be:
- from the house – not less than 3.0 m;
- from the room with animals – not less than 4.0 m.
With garages adjacent to the house, the distance to the yard line is (clause 6.9):
- from home – more than 3.0 m;
- from the garage – more than 1.0 m.
In the absence of a centralized water supply and main sewage system in a village or a gardening partnership, autonomous engineering networks are developed. The design and specifics of the location of such objects as a well, a well, septic tanks, cesspools, filtration wells, etc., related to water supply and sewerage, are discussed in detail in SNiP 2.04.02 – 84 and SNiP 2.04.01 – 85. Sanitary protective zones are regulated by TSN-40-301-97. For distances between pipelines and cables laid in neighboring sections, see SNiP 2.07.01–89 (Table 16).
Fire safety rules for placing objects on the site
According to clause 4.7 of SNiP 30-02-97, the distances between buildings within your site are not standardized for reasons of fire safety. Distances that prevent the spread of fire between buildings in adjacent areas depend on the building materials that make up the basis of the house, garage or utility block and are taken according to the table from SNiP. The table should be used in this way: A, B and C are the flammability classes of materials. Vertically – data about the building on your site, horizontally – on the neighboring one. For example, you have a wooden house, while your neighbors have a stone one. At the point of intersection of B (vertical) and A (horizontal), we find the distance – 10.0 m.
Material of supporting and enclosing structures of the building Distances, m AND B IN AND Stone, concrete, reinforced concrete and other non-combustible materials 6 8 ten B The same, with wooden floors and coverings, protected by non-combustible and hardly combustible materials 8 ten 12 IN Wood, frame enclosing structures made of non-combustible, hardly combustible and combustible materials ten 12 15
The rules allow blocking houses on two adjacent plots (single-row buildings) or on four plots (two-row buildings). There may be almost no passage between the houses that make up such a block or group, the distances are not subject to rationing. For buildings in other areas, the rules based on the table above apply. This layout allows the most rational use of the area of the allocated area, especially with its small size.
Attention! If two residential buildings are built on a site with subsequent delimitation, the rules apply to them as for two adjacent sites.
Blocks of two houses (single row development)
When building residential buildings with a height of more than one floor, SNiP 2.07.01–89 must be applied. The rules are developed from the point of view of providing everyone living on the street with a sufficient amount of sunlight (based on the results of insolation calculations) and preventing the spread of fire when one of the buildings ignites. If the houses on the street are 2- and 3-storey, the distance between them must be more than 15.0 m.For four-storey houses, the minimum distance is 20.0 m.
Such building is not allowed by our standards.
In the absence of main gas supply, gas cylinders of 12 liters or more should be stored in a separate annex on the side of a blank wall or a box made of metal or other non-combustible material (clause 8.12). It should be more than 5.0 m to the front door.According to the airbag 106 directly in the house, in the kitchen, you can hold cylinders up to 12 liters.
Environmental construction standards
Based on measures to prevent fires and to preserve nature, the building boundary should be further than 15.0 m from the border of the forest (clause 4.7 SNiP 30-02-97).
The rules for the conservation of water resources, if they are located near your site, are regulated by the Water Code of the Russian Federation. This applies, first of all, to the rules for water supply and wastewater disposal. In addition, restrictions apply to the use of the coastline for walking animals, resting, filling land dumps, composting structures, plowing. The possibilities for using fertilizers in your area are limited. Even a small area for a beach or walkways for a boat / fishing cannot be fenced off – the entire coastline up to 20.0 m wide is the property of the state.
What threatens non-compliance with the norms for the location of buildings
It is better to build initially, taking into account all the norms, so you will not get problems with the authorities, neighbors, or, more seriously, with the health or safety of property. If you bought a plot, the buildings on which do not meet the requirements, then you need to act in all directions. As far as sanitary standards are concerned, it is necessary to correct, as for relations with neighbors, it is necessary to resolve all controversial issues, fixing the agreement reached in writing and assuring it with a notary. In many cases, good relations with neighbors are a guarantee of trouble-free construction and legalization.
If the buildings on the site were erected during the operation of softer regulatory documents, then the issue is considered based on their requirements.
Penalties for non-compliance with the norms for the location of buildings are determined by the Code of Administrative Offenses. These are various amounts of fines, and, in addition, a refusal to put into operation will follow until the inconsistencies are eliminated.
If you want to make an extension to the house, it will have to be legalized in the regional authorities. Unauthorized development, according to the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Article 222), must in most cases be demolished (except for those separately specified).
Attention! A complete order in the permits for your possessions will help, if desired, to sell the land and the house without any problems.