The construction of any house starts from the foundation. The plot we got is not the best. Fine sand that forms quicksand in the groundwater zone almost below the surface. After much thought, we decided to lay a solid slab foundation. The option is not the cheapest, but it was optimal for us. It was possible to build it at the lowest possible cost without involving workers from outside.
After the rough work of the bulldozer, which removed the vegetation layer, we level the pit manually. Using ordinary shovels, lath and level, a flat horizontal surface was obtained..
On the leveled bed of the foundation pit, “stairs” are made of bars – the basis of the future formwork.
Boards are vertically nailed to the inner sides of the “stairs”, forming the so-called. sandboxes. The gaps between them form stiffeners on the underside of the foundation slab, on which the load-bearing walls rest.
“Sandboxes” are filled with coarse sand, which is abundantly watered.
Then the sand is carefully rammed. The result is a very dense surface on which the shoe does not leave an imprint..
The compacted sand is covered with a thick plastic wrap, which is attached to the boards with a stapler. In hot weather, the film becomes more elastic and stretches well.
Formwork racks are dug vertically along the perimeter of the stairs.
The outer plank formwork is nailed to the uprights, which are additionally reinforced with struts. The top of the formwork is leveled strictly.
The finished formwork is upholstered from the inside with glassine. Reinforcement cages are laid under the load-bearing walls (between the sandboxes and along the perimeter).
Reinforcing bars of the lower lattice are laid out according to the markings and tied to the frames with wire twists. The so-called “chanterelles” (spacers) are attached to the connected lower lattice with wire, to which the upper reinforcing lattice is then attached with a step of 20 cm.
Finally concrete arrives. Installation from the “mixer” is quick and easy. The grade and mobility of concrete are determined in the contract with the mortar unit.
The concrete mix is evenly distributed over the formwork. The horizontalness of the surface is determined by the sides of the formwork. Leveling the concrete surface with a wooden lath. The foundation slab is flat and strong.
The first to fit are the corner foam blocks, the lower side of which is moistened with water for better adhesion to the solution. Mortar waterproofing is applied to the top of the first row of masonry to protect against capillary moisture, the waterproofing composition is applied in several layers. Before applying the next layer, the previous one is thoroughly moistened.
Further laying is carried out with glue solution. All components are carefully dosed. The dry glue mixture is poured into water. It is better to mix the glue mixture with an electric drill in a plastic bucket – it is easier to wash, and less rattles.
First, the mixture is applied on a horizontal surface and then on a vertical.
The next block is put in place and aligned horizontally and along the cord.
In the masonry of the outer walls, two parallel cuts with a depth of about 5 cm are made with a circular with a carbide disc.
With the help of a chisel and a hammer, the middle between the cuts is broken out and cleaned of debris. Reinforcement bars welded at the corners are hung above the grooves..
The welded reinforcement is fixed with rubble gaskets in the center of the groove filled with cement mortar.
Small reinforcement cages are welded for window and door lintels.
A “box” is glued from narrow blocks above the opening, into which the reinforcing cage is laid. The box is filled with high strength concrete mortar.
Cutting blocks is easily carried out with an alligator-type electric cutter.
When working alone, it will take about three weeks to build basement walls.
Reinforcement cages for a reinforced concrete belt are made directly on the wall. The finished frames are too heavy to be lifted when assembled. The cut-to-size reinforcing bars are laid on wooden templates over the wall. The frames are alternately welded and aligned axially and horizontally. In places of intersections and joints, the frames are additionally fastened by welding using corners. Reinforcement is especially carefully fastened at the corner joints of the walls.
With a circular saw with a carbide disc on the foam concrete block, guide cuts are made on both sides .. Then we use an alligator electric saw, the blade of which exactly follows the guide cuts from the circular. Thus, from one full-size block we get several narrow “planks”.
With the obtained “planks” on both sides, we lay the reinforcement cages laid on the walls, getting a kind of trough. We make the fixed formwork for the supporting column in the basement on site from scraps of foam concrete. We glue a box out of them, fix it with clamps and fill it with concrete.
To manufacture the supporting intermediate wall in the basement, holes are drilled in the foundation slab according to the marking for laying the reinforcement. Vertical reinforcing bars are driven into prepared holes to a considerable depth, to which horizontal reinforcement is tied.
It is very easy and quick to knit reinforcement with a special ratchet hook, even a child can handle it. The reinforcement grille is installed strictly along a plumb line and is secured from displacement with wire ties and wooden wedges. To the bars installed at the ends, which determine the wall thickness, formwork boards are nailed in pairs, protected by plastic wrap from contact with concrete. The concrete is placed between the boards and rammed. The film prevents the concrete from drying out quickly and provides a smooth wall surface.
In the openings, support bars for lintel formwork are nailed to the lateral sides. Wooden circles are installed on the support bars – horizontal formwork made of “forty”. The circles are connected to the support bars with a nail connection through an intermediate bar. This makes it easier to remove the form later. Shields are attached from the sides, protecting the narrow blocks of the lining from displacement during concreting. Masonry of narrow “planks” blocks completes the lintel formwork.
All preparatory work has been completed. It is now the turn to place concrete. We prepare it ourselves in a concrete mixer. The finished concrete is placed in a permanent formwork along the perimeter of the walls. The formwork blocks are pre-moistened for better adhesion to concrete. The surface of the laid concrete is leveled at the level of the top of the formwork blocks and carefully smoothed out. The intermediate wall in the basement is also completely concreted. Its top is brought to one level with the top of the other walls.