Wall plastering is one of the main types of renovation work. The quality of the wall decoration depends on the correctly executed plaster. The article talks about how to correctly, efficiently and in what sequence to apply various types of plaster to the walls. What tools are needed for this and what materials to use.
What is plaster
The history of plaster is the history of mankind. Since people began to build houses for themselves, plaster also appeared. Even well-placed walls do not keep warm as well as plaster. At first, these were the most readily available materials: clay and straw. But with the development of technology, the quality of plaster mixes has also developed. With the development of geology, gypsum-based mixtures appeared. With the development of chemistry – cement mixtures.
The modern construction market offers a large number of plaster mixes, different in quality, application and properties. The use in the production of mixtures of mineral and chemical additives further expands the range.
What is plaster? Plaster is an Italian word for gypsum, lime, alabaster. That is, those ingredients that actually form the basis of plaster mixes. The word plaster itself is explained as “a hardened finishing layer formed by a building (plaster) mortar on the surfaces of structural elements and parts of buildings and structures.”
So, how to apply this “hardened finishing layer” correctly?
To do this, you need the following tools:
The main tool of the one who makes repairs is a hammer drill..
In order to knead the mixture, you need a mixer. Desirable industrial.
But since it is quite expensive for one repair, a hammer drill bit is also suitable..
A spatula and grater are required to work with the mixture..
In order to set the beacons, you need a plumb line. You can set beacons by level, but it does not give such accuracy.
To level the plaster on the wall, you need rules of different lengths.
Work with cement-sand plaster is carried out with a trowel and a trowel.
Well, all sorts of little things: thread, beacon profile, etc..
Plaster mix. It can be anything. Take Volma as an example, as it is the most common mixture today..
Cement and sand. Cement can also be of any brand.
Deep penetration soil.
We need to start by cleaning the walls. From concrete floors, and these are window and door lintels, the old plaster must be knocked off. Previously, no primers were used during construction. And cement-sand plaster has very poor adhesion (adhesion) to concrete.
In panel houses, all load-bearing walls are concrete. Therefore, all the old plaster is knocked off on these walls. It is also necessary to pay attention to the places where the wall panels adjoin to the outer wall. These joints are usually empty and plastered only on top. Such places are best foamed before plastering..
On gypsum and brick walls, you can also knock down all the plaster for safety. But you can also knock it down in areas where it falls off. To check the strength of the old plaster, you can tap it with a hammer. In problem areas, the plaster will ring. And where she holds well, the sound will be dull.
We cover all walls with deep penetration soil in order to create a protective film. If this is not done, then the walls will draw water from the plaster. And it will dry before it gains its strength.
Concrete surfaces are covered with Betokontakt primer.
Plaster mesh is attached to them.
After all surfaces are primed, beacons are placed along a plumb line.
“Skis” are stuffed on the beacons. “Skis” are guiding strips from the plaster mixture that will subsequently cover the walls.
If angles of ninety degrees are not required, then beacons are first set along the edges of the wall. Then a thread is pulled between the beacons and beacons are set along the entire length of the wall at the level of this thread. The distance between the beacons is slightly less than the length of the rule. The optimal distance is one and a half meters.
The maximum layer of plaster application is three centimeters. But if you need to apply a larger layer, it is applied in several stages. Be sure to let the previous layer dry.
It is allowed, to strengthen a large layer, the use of drywall. It is attached to the wall with dowel-nails, which creates additional reinforcement of the plaster layer. The “Volma” plaster mix has very good adhesion (adhesion). But for greater strength, in problem areas, such as brickwork, it is necessary to strengthen the plaster with a mesh.
The mesh is laid on the wall and fixed to it with a plaster mixture. After the first layer dries, apply the main layer. Volma plaster mix is applied to the wall with a spatula.
The plaster is leveled according to the “ski” rule.
Plastering walls with a cement-sand mixture has its own characteristics. The cement-sand mixture is used in “damp” rooms such as a toilet, bath, shower, sauna. The use of a cement-sand mixture in these rooms is due to the fact that it is able to “breathe” and therefore condensate moisture does not accumulate in the plaster layer.
In order for the mixture to hold on to the wall more firmly, it is reinforced with a metal mesh.
The cement-sand mixture is rubbed into the mesh with a grater.
After the first layer dries, “skis” are rubbed on it.
Then a layer of plaster is applied with a trowel.
Since it is very difficult to work with a trowel (even from the tenth time you will not succeed), it is best to invite professionals for this work.
After applying the second layer, the wall is aligned with the rule.
Small shells are rubbed with a grater.