The goal of a real man, as you know, is to raise a son, plant a tree and build a house. And if the first two tasks do not raise any special questions, then building your own house is an elusive goal for most of the stronger sex..
The process of obtaining building permits and granting a land plot is also greatly facilitated if the city authorities themselves are the customer of this building. However, most often in this case, housing is built for low-income categories of the population, economy-class apartments.
Topographic survey and geological expertise
A topographic survey of the land plot, which will soon become a construction site, is carried out to accurately determine the coordinates of the location of the future structure, as well as to determine the main characteristics of the terrain and the surrounding landscape.
This is a very important part of the construction of a multi-storey building, which, along with geological surveys, allows you to find out how deep the groundwater is located and assess the general condition of the soil, the probability and degree of possible shrinkage of the foundation.
Such surveys and surveys are carried out by specialized organizations that have the appropriate admission. After completion of the work, the developer receives a detailed report on the work done, which, among other things, notes such points as the characteristics of the relief, meteorological and climatic characteristics, geological structure, physical properties and composition of the soil, hydrogeological conditions and much more..
Based on geological surveys, the choice of building materials and construction technology is carried out, since in the case of a difficult relief or close occurrence of groundwater, it becomes necessary to use special methods.
Designing an apartment building is a difficult and extremely responsible task, since it depends on the designer how successful and comfortable the layout of the apartments will be, and their area, and the appearance of the house..
Belyakova Evgeniya. Architect. 2005
The design process can only be entrusted to professionals – specialists of companies that are in the relevant self-regulatory organizations and have received permission to perform this type of work.
Architects and designers are guided by the approved building codes and sanitary requirements, as well as the seismological situation and climatic features of the area. For example, sanitary legislation regulates such parameters of an apartment as lighting and ventilation, and the thermal protection system is developed taking into account the average annual temperature, if necessary, the project provides for additional insulation of the facade.
The complexity of the task facing the architect also lies in the fact that in addition to the requirements of the customer, who can make his own changes to the plan of the future building, the designer is obliged to agree on the final project with the architectural and construction authorities of the city and strictly follow the established sanitary standards and requirements.
Also, the design of the building provides for the optimal way of placing communications, which will ensure the energy efficiency of the building (recently, the standards of “green” construction are becoming more widespread in our country, which increases the requirements for economical consumption of heat and energy), environmental requirements, features of the surrounding area and other nuances.
Usually the architect offers several options for the design of the facade of the building, of which the customer chooses the one he likes best..
In addition, during the construction of a multi-storey, and especially a high-rise building (above 22 floors), it is necessary to very carefully consider and calculate the load on the foundation, the reliability of the supporting structures, which must cope with such a huge weight.
Another important detail – when drawing up a project, the architect must take into account not only the features of the landscape, but also the prospects for further development of the area. Without taking this nuance into account, in the future, the view from the windows of the building may change dramatically, and the facade will sharply contrast with neighboring buildings, for example, built in a completely different style..
This stage is extremely important for the successful completion of the construction, since only a well-designed, repeatedly tested and meeting all standards and requirements project guarantees that an attractive, reliable and safe apartment building will soon appear on this site, and the building itself will not look like a “monster”. disfigured the whole landscape.
Before proceeding to the most noticeable and important stage of the construction of a multi-storey building – construction work itself, one more stage is often carried out: a tender for the selection of a contractor organization, which will be entrusted with the implementation of the project.
Usually contractors are selected on a competitive basis, experience in this area, the availability of qualified employees and construction equipment are of great importance.
Stukoshin Fedor. Two workers. 1967
The building construction phase itself can be divided into the following critical parts:
- Site preparation. This includes such preparatory work as fencing a land plot, which allows you to avoid the appearance of strangers at the construction site and ensure the safety of materials and equipment; site clearance, including demolition of existing structures; rerouting engineering networks that interfere with construction; laying of temporary roads and necessary communications; arrangement of temporary household, administrative, warehouse and other premises. Also at this stage it is necessary to protect the construction site from possible accumulation of rainwater..
- Marking the axes of the building. Another important stage that requires careful verification and accurate calculation, since the slightest deviations will then be almost impossible to correct. The marking is carried out using accurate modern measuring instruments.
- Excavation. The main type of excavation work during the construction of a multi-storey building is digging a foundation pit, and excavation work also includes laying trenches for communications. At this stage, of course, you cannot do without special equipment – excavators and bulldozers, since the amount of work can be very large.
- Foundation work. It is the foundation that carries the greatest load, this is the foundation of the building and the guarantee of its durability and resistance. The type of foundation depends on the properties of the soil, sand or gravel backfilling is often used, and the main part of the work is filling with high quality concrete that can support the weight of a building with a height of 9.12 or even 24 floors.
- At the next stage of construction, the erection of the outer walls of the building begins, it should be noted that the technology of building a house made of bricks, reinforced concrete panels or a monolithic building has serious differences. Today, monolithic construction is becoming more and more popular, for which only formwork, reinforcement and concrete are needed.
- Supply of communications to the house – water, electricity, gas, sewerage system. Trenches for pipes were dug at the stage of earthworks, now communications are being laid and the building is connected to centralized water supply and other networks.
- Roof installation. This stage also depends on the approved type of roof; many modern new buildings have a so-called exploited roof, on which, for example, a winter garden can be arranged..
- Installation of internal partitions. Strictly speaking, the division of a multi-storey building into separate apartments, according to the approved project. At this stage, the installation of such an important element of a multi-storey building as elevator equipment is taking place..
- Installation of plastic windows. In order to continue the interior work, it is necessary to protect the premises from climatic influences, therefore, the installation of windows is carried out now. Metal doors can also be installed in each apartment.
- The device of internal communication networks. This includes the distribution of light throughout the building, the laying of sewer pipes, the arrangement of gas supply, heating, cold and hot water supply. Also, after wiring communications, meters for light and water are installed in each apartment..
- Floor screed device. At this stage, a concrete-sand mixture is used again, the floor is carefully leveled, it is from the floor screed that rough finishing works begin.
- Interior finishing works. It can be divided into rough and finishing, often developers sell apartments with a rough finish, providing the opportunity for new owners to independently bring the apartment into a living condition, which requires a significant investment of time and money.
- External finishing of the facade and carrying out repair work in all public areas. If the apartment can be sold after rough finishing work, then in the hallway, entrance, stairs, common roof and other common areas, all finishing work must be fully completed.
Many residential complexes also offer commercial premises, for example, on the ground floor there may be a laundry, beauty salon, bank branch or small grocery store. The presence of such premises should be provided, of course, even at the stage of drawing up the project, and the construction of an ordinary residential building and a multifunctional complex must go through all of the above stages..
Arrangement of the local area
In order to profitably sell apartments in a newly erected multi-storey building, as well as in accordance with town planning standards, the developer must also take care of the arrangement of the adjacent territory. A common practice has become the installation of a playground in front of the house, the presence of greenery, flower beds, the laying of paving slabs or asphalt in front of the entrances, the provision of access roads for vehicles, sometimes – the arrangement of parking for residents and their guests, the arrangement of street lighting.
Mefokov Nikolay. Saratov courtyard. 2004
Multi-storey buildings, which claim to be elite residential complexes, boast a closed, guarded territory, which is decorated with landscape design, and often even a swimming pool, simpler skyscrapers – just a well-groomed small courtyard with a swing and a small flower bed in front of the entrance.
As you can see, the process of constructing an apartment building is quite complex, multi-stage and responsible. Many developers note that the main difficulties arise precisely at the stage of obtaining construction permits, collecting all the necessary documents, as well as creating and approving a project, while the construction work itself does not take much time. However, many construction companies save time and money using standard projects, which sometimes turns out to be not the worst option..