- Types of noise and methods to eliminate them
- Does a stretch ceiling provide any advantages
- Dependence on the type of building
- Selection of sound absorbing material
- Features of installation of noise insulation
- Interfacing with soundproofing walls
The “cardboardness” of many domestic buildings has long been a talk of the town. So that the neighbors from above do not bother with the details of their life, it is recommended to arrange at least basic sound and noise insulation of the ceiling. And how to do it correctly for tensioning systems – we will tell you in today’s instructions..
Types of noise and methods to eliminate them
In the context of construction and repair, noises are divided into two main categories: structural and airborne, the name corresponds to the path of their propagation. The sources of each type of noise are also usually different. Air is music, human voice, sounds of animals and working household appliances. Such noises are neutralized by damping air vibrations in a layer of porous, easily compressible material.
Structural noise, otherwise called shock or structural noise, occurs when various parts of a building are exposed to intense impact. Examples of such noise include bounce from a washing machine, clattering of heels, although the most notorious is the noise from a hammer drill or hammer drill. The propagation of noises of a structural nature is eliminated with the help of damping inserts in the places where one part of the structure adjoins another, for example, between the ceiling and the armored belt of the wall.
In addition, in fact, even structural noise is perceived by a person as airborne, that is, at some point, the building transmits vibrations to the air. A secondary way of noise isolation can be the damping of this vibration over the entire area of communication of walls and ceilings with the space inside the apartment, however, this method is considered more expensive in terms of material consumption.
You should come to terms with the fact that it will not be possible to completely exclude the penetration of noise into the apartment from the outside, how not to achieve complete absorption of sounds that occur inside the room. However, it is quite realistic to bring the noise absorption of the walls to the standards specified in SP 51.13330.2011. Thus, the optimal degree of sound insulation of walls is about 80-90 dBA for low-frequency noise (walking, impacts) and half as much for high-frequency noise (music, voice).
Does a stretch ceiling provide any advantages
When working with a stretch ceiling, we are faced with a flat canvas enclosed in a frame of a baguette profile. Unlike suspended ceiling structures, the only way to transmit structural vibration is through the attachment profile to the walls..
The propagation of low-frequency structure-borne noise through the ceiling is prevented by gluing a damper tape under the mounting profile. If this is not done, you can get a kind of speaker in the size of the entire room. Note that not all frequency ranges will be amplified through the ceiling, for example, high-frequency noise is damped due to the elasticity of the film.
With airborne noise and structural vibration of the floor, things are a little worse: the stretch canvas practically does not hinder their propagation and even enhances them. At the same time, the plane of the rough ceiling remains completely free for the installation of any kind of sound insulation of arbitrary thickness.
Dependence on the type of building
Structural noise removal work must be planned in accordance with the building structure. In most cases, the most attention is required for the nodes of the abutment of the walls to the ceilings and the features of the sealing of joints and technological cavities. In some cases, you can even come to the conclusion that surface mounting of sound insulation will not give the desired effect..
A classic example of this is a panel house with a single-layer ceiling with hollow slabs. In such buildings, acoustic resonance often occurs due to the rigid abutment of the slabs to the wall panels. The optimal way out is not considered to be the soundproofing of the ceiling, but cooperation with the neighbors from above in order to build their floor using floating technology.
Frame ceilings without filler can be modified by filling in polystyrene chips or sawdust, which will have a good effect on their sound absorption. In some cases, it is useful to re-seal load-bearing beams in walls or technological joints. For example, you can install damping pads and inserts of porous incompressible material.
Selection of sound absorbing material
In ordinary cases, the installation of slab or roll materials on the rough ceiling helps to get rid of the noise of neighbors from above, dissipating air vibrations until white noise with an acceptable intensity is formed. In this case, both special composite materials and conventional insulation such as mineral wool are used..
Sound insulation of the ceiling with mineral wool
The advantages of special materials include their high efficiency, the disadvantages – the equally high cost. The best way to damp air vibrations occurs at the interface between two dissimilar media, for example, cardboard and mineral wool. The shape and size of the cells, the density of the materials, and the order in which the layers are stacked are secondary..
Soundproof membrane Tecsound
All these principles can be used when making your own soundproofing cake. However, you should avoid the advice of amateurs and understand that materials such as polyurethane foam, EPS, egg trays, cork and other “innovative” noise absorbers do not have any positive effect, and in some cases even exacerbate the situation.
Acoustic mineral wool AcousticWool
The most suitable can be considered felt, mineral wool with a density of 40-60 kg / m3, acoustic mineral wool, wool and coconut fiber. From specialized materials, roll Tecsound and AcousticWool mats can be cited as the most effective for noise insulation of ceilings.
Features of installation of noise insulation
By performing soundproofing of the ceiling when finishing it with a stretch canvas, you avoid the need to install a frame suspension system, which prevents the propagation of structural noise. All that is needed is to fix one or more layers of sound-absorbing material on the rough plane.
The separation of air media should be ensured first, since the direct transmission of airborne noise occurs most intensively. In the general case, wrapping the ceiling with cellophane helps, however, such actions require caution so as not to disturb the climate in the room. If the ventilation and insulation system requires free gas exchange through the floor, it is necessary to use vapor-permeable membranes.
In general, the soundproofing is fixed to the ceiling by means of disc dowels used in the wet façade system. Their length and installation pitch depend on the thickness of the material, its density and ability to maintain its shape. It is most difficult to install multi-layer insulation where temporary fixation of the applied layers is required. Spot gluing or a structure that supports the cake until it is finally fixed can be used for this purpose..
In one of the most effective noise absorption pies, the concrete ceiling is pasted over with two layers of corrugated cardboard on silicate glue, then a temporary support system is assembled from the ceiling profile for the gypsum board. Acoustic cotton wool is placed in rows on the slats with mats of 60–70 mm, under which a felt carpet with a thickness of about 10 mm is placed. The denser material in the bottom layer allows for better noise absorption and fewer bindings.
Interfacing with soundproofing walls
When installing sound insulation of the ceiling, it is important not only to tightly join the elements of the insulator itself, but also to achieve minimal interaction with the sound insulation of the walls. Stretch ceiling allows you to erect false wall cladding not to the ceiling itself and this advantage should be used.
To be sure that there is no space left in the corner junction of the wall to the ceiling for the free propagation of airborne noise, the edges of the ceiling sound insulation must be wrapped and brought into a hidden plane just below the level of the stretch coating.
If there is a sound-absorbing filler behind the false wall, make sure that its upper open edge is even and the ceiling insulator will fit snugly against the wall. Special bonding in this place is not required, you just need to achieve tight laying without air gaps and make sure that the rigid surface of the sheathing is at some distance from the horizontally located insulation layer, that is, does not rest against it.