How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

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Using wood in your home interior, you think about how long it will last. The answer depends on whether you know how to choose wood stains and varnishes for interior woodwork. Further use should be taken into account: for furniture, choose non-toxic compounds, for floors – resistant to abrasion.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

Choosing a mixture according to the type of surface and its further use

Each surface has its own characteristics and risks of damage. To preserve the tree and preserve its beauty, you need to carefully choose the composition of the mixture covering it..

The coating can have the following properties:

  • toxicity – the safest ones are made on the basis of water, wax and oils. Nitro and polyurethane varnishes are applied in a respirator;
  • drying speed – alcohol-based formulations dry the fastest (almost instantly). Varnishes and stains on water and nitro varnishes are slightly inferior to them (about three hours). Oil solutions dry the longest (at least a day);
  • the ability to priming small irregularities and porous wood – conditionally divided into ready-made self-priming compounds, nitrovarnishes with a large solid residue and varnishes with the addition of a filler;
  • durability – the most durable polyurethane varnish to any damage, but with careless use it tightly glues the strips. The most unstable nitrocellulose;
  • fire resistance – ready-made fire-resistant varnishes. Fire resistance directly depends on the layer thickness;
  • no smell – there is no fuse in acrylic varnishes and water-based stains. The smell from epoxy and oil compounds disappears up to three days.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

They differ in the type of application:

  • with a brush – viscous compositions based on oil, resins and wax are applied;
  • spray gun – a mixture based on alcohol and water.

We select a stain for interior work with wood

The first thing that interests any person is what kind of visual effect the stain will give, they are repelled from it, choosing the composition.

Selection by visual effect

Wood staining is used not only as a decorative coating, sometimes toning hides the mistakes of previous experiments or helps to achieve a uniform color for a porous wood product. Powder stains are used for toning, mixing them with a solution to which pigment is added.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

If you are a follower of old technologies, use organic dyes, they will retain color for centuries. Their color scheme is more meager, but with a recipe, you can create the same shade after decades.

Using herbal ingredients, you can achieve the following shades:

  • red – a decoction of larch bark or onion husks;
  • brown – nutshell powder with the addition of soda. If you need a rich color, mix willow and oak bark, alder catkins and walnutshells, boil the tincture with the addition of soda on this composition;
  • gray – after applying the stain with nut broth, soak the surface with vinegar;
  • black – with the addition of a decoction of oak or alder bark;
  • yellow – mix the decoction of the barberry root with alum and boil;
  • scarlet – a composition of wolf berry juice and Glauber’s salt;
  • blue – juice of wolf berries with the addition of soda;
  • green – potash with wolf berry juice.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

Powder stain is diluted with a decoction and applied as if diluted with water.

Colorless stain to enhance the natural beauty of wood

This category includes all types of wood stains, no additives. True, they shade the color of the boards a little. This is due to the type of wood – on dense wood, the natural color will remain, and in the porous structure it will become darker by several tones.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

Antique rustic stain

There are two ways to get this effect. Buying a ready-made composition with increased percolation into deep layers or applying a regular stain on a sanded surface and then removing it on convex areas. To enhance the contrast, you need to walk along the grain of the wood with a metal brush, then the softer areas will become deeper and darker.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

Compositions for multi-colored application

They are used to obtain the color “Arctic oak”, “bleached oak” and other variants with bleaching. For work, purchase a water-based stain with white pigment, oil stain and wax. The first layer is applied for bleaching, and the second with a mixture of stain with the addition of melted wax. The excess is removed with a rag. Oil absorbs into the veins, emphasizing the wood structure.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

Not all solvents are universal, some are not suitable for a nursery, but they are irreplaceable when processing parquet. Before purchasing the composition, decide where it will be used.

Which breeding base is right for you:

  • alcohol – resistant to ultraviolet light, does not require additional protection with varnish;
  • oil – ideal for beginners without special tools, environmentally friendly and resistant to abrasion;
  • wax – not suitable for further coating with polyurethane and two-component acid-curing varnish;
  • nitro – applied with a spray gun due to moodiness and frequent stains;
  • water – requires sanding after application due to lifting of fibers.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

It is better to purchase several types than spoil the product in pursuit of savings.

We protect wood with varnish

The stain is not able to protect the wood from contact with other objects, therefore, after it has completely dried, it is recommended to varnish the product.

Desired effect at the end of the work:

  • glossy – looks good in rooms with poor lighting, giving the surface depth. In a brightly lit room, it creates a mirror-like shine that hides the beauty of the wood;
  • matte – retains its natural look;
  • pearlescent – during the play of light, an internal flicker appears;
  • tinted – with the addition of pigment to change the shade.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

When applying pearlescent and tinted varnish, do not forget that color saturation depends on the number of coats..

Types of varnishes

Like wood stain, varnishes have different bases, some of them release toxic substances during work and require a long ventilation.

They are divided into the following types:

  • alcohol – most often used for small items by restorers or when processing musical instruments;
  • water-soluble – odorless and not afraid of detergents, suitable for children’s furniture;
  • oil – used to cover the floor, shade wood with yellow;
  • alkyd – glyphthalic and pentaphthalic synthetic resin is used as a base;
  • polyester – suitable for items with frequent use, form a protective film. Withstand not only washing, but also the ingress of reagents;
  • epoxy – the same resistant as polyester, but with a faster drying rate;
  • polyurethane – one of the most durable, most often they cover parquet in public places and yachts;
  • acrylic – used for processing children’s toys and furniture, the safest for health.

How to choose stains and varnishes for interior woodwork

When mixing, make sure that the components of the stain and varnish do not conflict, but it is better to apply them separately. The varnish prevents the stain from penetrating into the wood, therefore such experiments end with ugly dark stains and spots on the surface..

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