For roofs, materials are used that can withstand periodic and prolonged moisture, withstand sudden temperature changes, aggressive substances contained in the atmosphere, and do not corrode.
The roofing market for private houses offers a variety of materials. They can be classified according to various criteria, such as cost. Based on this, three classes are usually distinguished.
Economy class – this is asbestos-cement sheets, galvanized iron and ondulin (“euro slate”). Business class includes metal roofing tiles, flexible bituminous tiles and cement-sand tiles. Premium materials include German ceramic tiles, natural slate (slate), roofing copper and titanium-zinc coatings..
However, it is more logical to consider roofing materials from the point of view of the structural features of the roofing cake. And here the following groups stand out: soft roofing, slate, metal roofing, tiles.
As applied to a private house, a soft roof is a conventional name for the construction of a waterproof carpet made of materials based on bitumen modified with polymers. These include modern roll materials such as roofing material, as well as bituminous tiles.
The latter became a real hit. It is close in structure and composition to rolled materials, since its basis is the same fiberglass or fiberglass with bitumen applied on both sides. And it is called a tile because it is a small flat sheet with curly cutouts along one edge, imitating a tile.
It should be borne in mind that roll materials are intended only for flat roofs, bitumen can flow on pitched surfaces. But bituminous shingles can be used on roofs of any shape and configuration, they have high noise-absorbing properties, “breathes” and fits perfectly into the surrounding landscape.
Soft roofs form a dense water-repellent carpet, they practically do not need additional waterproofing measures.
Slate is sheets of a wavy profile made of various materials. The most common asbestos-cement slate, which is obtained by molding a mixture of Portland cement, asbestos and water. Despite the carcinogenicity of asbestos dust, it is still widely used because it has a low price and is easy to install..
A more modern and environmentally friendly option is fiber-cement slate, which is widespread in the West. It replaces asbestos fibers with plant, mineral and synthetic fibers. It is characterized by low weight, high elasticity, resistance to temperature extremes and biological effects, sound insulating properties, corrosion resistance.
Another type of slate is corrugated bituminous sheets (its most popular brand is ondulin, well known in our country), which are made of pressed cardboard impregnated with bitumen and painted using a special technology or coated with polymer. Sheets are easily attached to the crate, their installation does not require professionalism and special equipment.
There also appeared corrugated roofing sheets made of plastic with high consumer characteristics, for example, the domestic material “Bioline”.
Metal roofs can be made of piece materials (corrugated board or metal tiles) and folded (from sheet or roll galvanized steel, as well as from aluminum, titanium-zinc alloy and copper).
Galvanized roofing steel is inexpensive and allows you to arrange roofs on roofs of any configuration. By stamping (after applying a polymer anti-corrosion and decorative coating), profiled sheets (corrugated board) are obtained from it.
The transverse stamping of the corrugated board allows you to get a pattern that resembles a natural tile. This product is called metal tiles. Its advantages include light weight, ease of installation, durability, a full set of components, environmental safety, and a reasonable price. Exclusive option – metal tile coated with stone chips.
Seamed roofs are called roofs made of sheet and rolled metal, in which the connections of individual coating elements are made in the manner of a tailor’s seam seam – a seam. It can be done manually or with a seaming device, and it can also be self-locking. Fastening of sheets to the lathing occurs using clamps inside the seam.
The tiled roof is one of the most ancient. It is durable, fireproof, does not require frequent repairs and painting. A cottage with a tiled roof, baked clay or cement-sandy, looks more attractive and richer, and the service life of such a roof without major repairs exceeds 100 years. Tiles cover pitched roofs of any configuration.
Alternative ceramic tiles are cement-sand and polymer-sand tiles, which outwardly hardly differ from natural ones. Compared to it, the first is cheaper, the second is lighter, which allows you to save on the rafter system and transportation.
The choice of a roof for a house is not only an aesthetic problem, but above all an engineering one. This issue must be resolved at the stage of calculating the foundation and walls so that the supporting structures can withstand the load from the roof.
When it comes to the reconstruction of a building – the very same roof repair – you should be all the more careful. It is impossible to simply replace light galvanizing with heavy tiles without reinforcing the supporting structures, not to mention insulation. Therefore, it is best to trust the professionals in this situation.