The content of the article
- What is truffle?
- What does a truffle mushroom look like?
- Why truffle is the most expensive mushroom in the world
- Do truffles grow in Russia
- Black summer (Tuber aestivum)
- Winter black
- White truffle
- Where does truffle grow in Russia
- european part of Russia
- Caucasus and Crimea
- Delicious mushrooms in Siberia
- How to search for truffles
- Growth Features
- Truffle search in the forest
- Truffle Search Animals
- Growing truffles at home
- Truffle Photo
Most Russians are used to calling truffles chocolates with a characteristic tart taste. However, these sweets got their name because of the outward resemblance to unusual mushrooms. The latter are considered expensive, they are especially appreciated by gourmets. When searching for a delicacy, difficulties often arise, because it grows at a depth of 15 cm. If you are interested in the question of where real expensive truffles grow in Russia, then you need to figure out what climatic conditions suit them.
What is truffle?
Truffles belong to marsupials, which have underground tuberous fleshy fruit bodies. The unsightly appearance does not match their superior taste and aroma. Having tasted a delicacy, you will remember it for life. It smells of autumn forest: fallen leaves, earth, wet trees. Fresh truffles have a very strong aroma. Even if cooking is not your hobby, cooking truffles is easy.
The fungus is located underground between the roots of beech, hornbeam, oak, birch, poplar, elm, linden, mountain ash, hawthorn and other trees. Developing, he draws from the roots all vital elements, while not causing any harm to the tree. Truffles love deciduous, mixed forests, land with lime. Ripening time is from late summer to late autumn. The standard size of mushrooms is 10-15 cm, their mass is up to 500 g. Plants are found in the Volga region, Moscow, Orel, Vladimir, Samara, Leningrad regions, the Caucasus and the Black Sea..
What does a truffle mushroom look like?
Fruit bodies are round, tuberous, have a fleshy, cartilaginous consistency. In terms of size, it varies from hazelnut to potato tuber. Outside, the fruiting bodies have a leathery layer – peridium. It is smooth, with cracks or covered with large polyhedral warts. If you cut the fruit body, then the pattern of the fabric will resemble marble. The shiny truffle inside has alternating light and dark veins: light – called “internal veins”, dark – “external veins”.
Why truffle is the most expensive mushroom in the world
Truffles are called royal mushrooms – one of the most expensive. You can find sellers offering a kilogram worth more than $ 4,000. The value of the product is explained by its rarity, unsurpassed taste, aroma. French and Italian have become famous throughout the world. Two truffle capitals are distinguished – these are Grignan and Aqualandia: here the fruits are harvested almost all year round: in the fall – white, in the winter – black, in the spring – banchetto, in the summer – black summer.
Exquisite are the white fruits. They can not be bred, they grow in very limited territories. For example, in Piedmont, mushrooms are found only in Langa, sometimes found in Monferrato, Roero, around Turin. The high price of such products is explained by high demand and small supply. They differ in seasonality, they are on sale from October to January (the price depends on the variety). The most expensive delicacy is just white. Once a product weighing 1.2 kg was put up and sold at an Italian auction, its price was 95,000 euros.
Do truffles grow in Russia
Russian truffle is called a black summer mushroom – Tuber aestivum (from Latin). They reach a diameter of 10 cm, weight is 400 g. Age is determined by the pulp: its color is whitish, yellow-brown, gray-brown. When ripe, the consistency changes in the fruiting body: in young mushrooms it is dense, in old mushrooms it is loose. The taste of truffle is a little sweet, the aroma resembles hazelnut, seaweed. There is a delicacy in Europe, the western part of Russia, under pine trees, hazel, oak. Fruits can be found from June to October..
Black summer (Tuber aestivum)
This type of fruit is called Saint-Jean, Scorzone, edible, Burgundy. The ripening period lasts all summer and ends in late autumn. The northern regions of Russia have a different fruiting time – from mid-summer to November. Tuber aestivum is found at a depth of 3-15 cm. The fruits are arranged in groups or singly, form mycorrhiza with beech, oak, hornbeam, rarely located near birches and pines. Often they are found in the south-west of Russia, on the Black Sea.
The fruit is covered with warts 2-3 cm in size, its diameter reaches 20 cm. The fresh fruit on the outside has a reddish-violet hue, after collection the color darkens and turns black. The truffle pulp is white, then turns gray and turns gray-purple with many white, yellowish veins. The mass of such a fruit can be more than a kilogram. It often grows on Ukrainian, French, Italian lands. Ideal places for plants – birch, oak groves, beech forests. Active fruiting – from November to March. Truffle flavor reminds musk.
The price of the product is much higher than the previous ones. It resembles Jerusalem artichoke tubers measuring 5-15 cm. Weight may be more than 1.5 kg. If you go for mature truffles, then keep in mind that the surface of the fungus is felt, in young specimens it is even. When ripening, pits and protrusions appear outside, the color becomes light brown, yellowish. The pulp is white, in old fruits it is grayish with yellowish veins. Mushrooms have a nutty flavor. The older the fetus, the stronger the smell. “Tubers” are found in Vladimir, Smolensk, Kuibyshev forests from late July to early November.
Where does truffle grow in Russia
If you are interested in where truffles grow in Russia, then go to the Volga region, Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod, Oryol, Samara, Leningrad regions of the country. Ripening period is all autumn months, fruiting time is the end of autumn and the beginning of winter. Fruits are small – about 15 cm have a weight of up to 500 g, grow at a depth of 10-15 cm.
The black variety is considered a summer treat. He is found in the Caucasus, on the Black Sea coast, in the Moscow and Vladimir regions. Black specimens love to develop in deciduous and mixed forests with limestone soil, near the roots of oak, beech, hornbeam, hazel. Diameter of white fruits – up to 10 cm. Ripening and fruiting time – early summer – late autumn.
european part of Russia
They find both black (Russian) and white (Polish) fruits. The first variety breeds on Podolsk, Belgorod, Tver, Leningrad land. Voronezh Forest is famous for a lot of delicacy. Near St. Petersburg, black mushrooms are rare, but the white variety grows on Oryol, Tula land. Remember that the warmer the climate, the more likely it is to find a treat.
Caucasus and Crimea
These areas are known for their mild climate: there is everything for the active growth of delicacy. A lot of oak and beech groves are concentrated here, which is favorable for the development of mushrooms. A large number are found on Crimean land (steppe regions), the North and West Caucasus, in North Ossetia – Alania. It is worth highlighting Anapa, Gelendzhik, the village of Abrau-Durso, the Western Caucasus: Adagum-Pshish district.
Delicious mushrooms in Siberia
Many people, wondering where real expensive white truffles grow in Russia, do not suspect that the delicacy can grow on Siberian soil. First discovered a treat in these places in the 19th century. Fruits grow both individually and in groups, they like to be located in deciduous and coniferous forests. Many ceps are found on Tomsk land. Recently, residents of the region began to collect fruits in kilograms, which is explained by favorable climatic conditions and active fruiting.
How to search for truffles
To find truffle in the forest, you must have special knowledge. They are near the roots of trees: often found near oaks. Try to look for fruits not on cuttings. Based on practice, such areas do not differ in a large number of mushrooms. It is desirable that there is chernozem with high humidity. Before you go searching, consider the following:
- See in advance the fruits live or in photos.
- Prepare to search for animals: specially trained pigs or dogs are suitable.
To “silent hunt” was successful, focus on some features of the area. The rules for mushroom pickers are as follows:
- The “truffle” area where the delicacy is located is distinguished by stunted vegetation, gray-ash ground.
- Mushrooms come to the soil surface extremely rarely (sometimes this happens due to strong winds or heavy rains), so look for them in the ground at a depth of 10-15 cm.
- Pay attention to the tubercles, they should be unearthed.
- Midges often swirl over a place with mushrooms: the larvae feed on mushrooms, so insects lay eggs nearby.
A favorable place for the development of truffles is a large number of tree roots and soil with loose soil with a lot of sand, lime. Experienced mushroom pickers say that if you find one instance, then next you need to continue to search for several more. As a rule, you can find about 5 pieces. Often truffle develops in families, rarely – individually.
Truffle search in the forest
Unusual mushrooms people have been collecting for many years. It is important to consider that there is a false and real mushroom. To return home with the desired booty, it is important to follow a special technology:
- Go to the forest where there are beeches, birches, oaks, hazel.
- Look for fruits near trees with large roots.
- If the search is done with the help of pigs, then they should wear a muzzle, because animals really like to eat mushrooms.
- Keep in mind the appearance of the plant: its surface is rough, flesh with a solid structure. Fruits resemble potato tubers in black or white..
Truffle Search Animals
Mushrooms have a very strong smell, which animals can easily catch even at a distance. For this reason, experienced mushroom pickers prefer to keep specially trained dogs or pigs. The latter are able to smell at a distance of 25 meters. After the aroma is determined, the pig will actively dig out the delicacy. If there is no muzzle, then it is necessary to ensure that the pig does not eat what was found.
As for dogs, they are indifferent to eating delicacies, so putting on a muzzle before searching is not necessary. Before using these four-legged “detectives”, it will take a long time to learn the rules for finding mushrooms. The dog needs to be trained in smell. If you are planning to buy a trained dog, then keep in mind that it costs more than 5,000 euros.
Growing truffles at home
The delicacy is grown at home. If you take into account these recommendations, then over time you will get a great treat:
- First, you need to create a suitable microclimate, which should be the same in summer and winter. The mushroom does not like temperature changes.
- Proceed to the purchase of trees: oak, walnut, beech. Tree roots should be infected with truffle mycelium. The price of the option with disputes is 10-15 dollars.
- Choose places for planting trees: they must be protected from direct sunlight, wind, animals.
- Pay attention to the soil; it must be alkaline. Add lime to the ground if necessary..
- Do not use any fertilizers before planting trees, because they can adversely affect the development of spores.
- Only after cultivating and preparing the soil, plant the acquired trees. It is advisable to do this in early spring, when the weather is stable outside.
- Plant a tree in a hole measuring 75 cm: pour water and only then put a plant in it.
- When planting, try not to damage the root system of the tree. Cover them with soil very carefully, then pour plenty of water.
- Sprinkle the mulch around the root system of the tree at a distance of 30-40 cm: use oak leaves from last year.
- Plants are covered with a film for greenhouses.
- To feed the trees, use special ready-made fertilizers (the method of their application is indicated on the packaging).