Board materials for construction needs: types, characteristics, performance

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Slab building materials – products in the form of slabs or sheets, intended for the creation of constructions and finishing of buildings. The article will not touch on concrete slabs – we will talk about wood, polymer and combined options intended for manual installation.

Board materials for building needs

Structural plates

Factory products based on combined raw materials are called structural plates – they are used to create supporting and supporting structures. They can be applied to all areas of the building.

Functions performed by slab material in building elements:

  1. Cohesion of frame elements, rafter system into one structure. The ribs are given spatial rigidity and a continuous surface for subsequent finishing.
  2. Leveling and strengthening of the plane (property is used when repairing the floor).
  3. Intermediate layer (used for vibration, noise and heat insulation).
  4. Combined function (refers to structural and finishing materials). Carries out the function of uniting the frame and has a decorative layer.

Next, we will consider the most popular types of structural plates..

OSB or “Canadian plywood”

A board obtained by hot pressing a mixture of wood chips and polymer (epoxy) glue. Over the past 10 years, it has literally conquered the Russian board materials market. Main advantages:

  1. Utilitarian properties.
  2. Variety of safety classes (and prices accordingly).
  3. Cheap raw materials give an acceptable product price.

Board materials for building needs

Disadvantages:

  1. Technical material – no finishing properties.
  2. Poorly holding fasteners.

OSB is best suited for framing, roofing and flooring on a solid foundation.

Plywood

It is obtained by gluing veneer sheets together in layers. They are pre-impregnated with hydrophobic compounds and fire retardants. The classic of the global wood-based panel market – used for over 100 years.

Benefits:

  1. High strength.
  2. Shock absorption.
  3. Wear resistance (does not lose properties for a long time).
  4. A wide variety of design options – laminated, furniture, finishing, etc..
  5. Can be a finishing material.
  6. Holds fasteners well.

Board materials for building needs

Disadvantages:

  1. More expensive than OSB.
  2. Tree trunks are used for production.
  3. Hydrophobic varieties are significantly more expensive than basic ones.
  4. Has more weight due to greater density.

This material allows you to create a flat, smooth flooring along the joists. Furniture and packaging (containers) are made of it..

Chipboard – wood-laminated plastic

In fact, this is plywood, on which the highest quality birch veneer goes. The layer of polymer adhesive in the material is increased – due to this, the strength characteristics are improved. Applicable in most industrial areas.

Board materials for building needs

Advantages:

  1. Exceptional wear resistance.
  2. Strength comparable to metal.
  3. Anti-friction material.

Disadvantages:

  1. Heavy weight.
  2. High price.

This type of plywood can be used anywhere – it can withstand heavy loads and moisture changes.

Sheathing and layering materials

Particleboard / fiberboard.Hot pressed wood-based panels with or without glue. They are used as an intermediate, leveling and insulating layer. Decorated * they are widely used in furniture and interior decoration.

* This refers to laminated sheets.

Board materials for building needs

Gypsum plasterboard – GKL.In fact, this is a slab formed by a hardened gypsum mixture between layers of technical cardboard. Wall slabs 8–12 mm thick have a relatively weak structure and are intended only for creating false walls and partitions. Gypsum plasterboards 12-22 mm have high strength and resistance to dynamic loads.

Board materials for building needs

Magnesite slab.This slab is obtained by polymerizing magnesite. It has a thickness of 4 to 18 mm and is suitable for outdoor use. A tough and durable base for decorative finishing. Of the shortcomings, it should be noted the complete lack of plasticity – with sedimentary or other deformations of the base, the plate can simply burst or tear out the fasteners.

Board materials for building needs

Cement particle board – DSP.Combined product based on decontaminated wood chips and cement-sand mortar. Whole houses are built from such raw materials. In this form, the material is called arbolite.

Board materials for building needs

DSP is applicable only as an intermediate layer – it requires protection from the atmosphere and has no decorative appearance. But it perfectly absorbs noise, accepts plaster, is vapor-permeable and is inexpensive.

Do-it-yourself economical way of soundproofing a DSP apartment

Sound insulation in apartments is an urgent problem, the solution of which leads to a crossroads: high-quality noise blocking requires an insulating layer of at least 50 mm (or better 100 mm) and a frame, and this reduces the already modest dimensions of rooms. We will describe a way to solve this issue using an inexpensive material with combined properties – cement particle board.

Working process:

1. Prepare the wall for work – remove or repair loose areas. The wall can be made of any material – brick, concrete, blocks, wood. When mounting on a frame, create a plan (drawing) with frame edges and anchor to fixed points.

2. Fasten the slab 30–50 mm thick to the stone wall with a dowel-umbrella with alternating joints. The plate is attached to the frame with self-tapping screws and a washer. Applying polyurethane foam to the contact surface will be a good plus.

3. When joining the boards, leave a gap of 10 mm, which is then filled with polyurethane foam..

4. Plaster or putty can be immediately applied to the surface. Installation of gypsum board on top of the DSP can be done in two ways:

  • for multiple fastenings with self-tapping screws to DSP with a pitch of 150 mm. This plate does not hold the fasteners well, so the number of self-tapping screws should be more than for fastening to a rigid base. This option is permissible with a plate thickness of 50 mm. The length of the screws is equal to the plate thickness minus 5 mm;
  • on gypsum glue. In this case, the sheets are mounted according to the instructions of this method – glue is applied to the contact surface and the sheet is pressed down with accompanying alignment.

This method is good because it is frameless and due to this it is cheaper than any option with special materials..

Table. Approximate market value of panel materials for construction

Name Thickness, mm Note Cost 1 m2, at. e.
OSB-3 (E1) nine KRONOSPAN, Romania 2500х1250 mm 3
OSB-3 (E1) nine Bolderaja, Latvia 2500х1250 mm 4,3
OSB-3 (E1) 18 KRONOSPAN, Romania 2500x1250mm 6.8
Chipboard sixteen Ground, Russia, 3500×1750 mm 3.35
Constructive plywood (E1) 20 FSF (moisture resistant, polished), Russia, 1525×1525 mm 9.2
Film faced plywood (E4) 22 Formwork, brand IF LIPJD 1F50M, Russia or China, 2500×1250 mm 33
Laminate (E2) 20 Plate thickness from 7 to 60 mm, large thickness to order, Russia, 1520×1520 mm 87
Laminate (E2) 60 Plate thickness from 7 to 60 mm, large thickness to order, Russia, 1520x1520mm 265

The materials mentioned in the article are basic and the most common. Their market share is 80–85%. The remaining 15% are more rare products, for example, plywood, OSB and chipboard, laminated with a plastic layer. Such materials are rarely found on the free market and are usually produced to order for a specific job..

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