- Classic or “wet” way
- Stage 1. Markup
- Stage 2. Making a template
- Stage 3. Extraction of horizontal rustication
- Stage 4. Extraction of vertical rusts
- Stage 5. Corners, frames of windows, doors
- Stage 6. Filling squares
- Stage 7. Finishing
How were massive facades made in the old days? Are the secrets of architects available today? What material is best suited for such work? In this article we will describe the old way of creating rusticated facades and show you how to adapt it to modern conditions..
In the article “History and varieties of rusticated plaster” we talked about the features of rusticated plaster. If desired, such a facade can be made with your own hands, and according to the original technology used 200-300 years ago. In this case, the facade of the house will be not only a beautiful design, but also a source of pride for the owner. This is painstaking work, which will take time, skill and soul..
All facades require an understanding of the final appearance. In the case of rusticated plaster, the strategy of the work depends on the final appearance of the entire exterior of the house. This concept is appropriate here, because detailing the facade can be very complex, contain many different solutions and elements. They can be implemented in any way, but the design study must be completed finally before the start of work on the facade decoration.
Classic or “wet” way
In most cases, along with the finishing, the facade insulation is also carried out. And already at this stage, you should choose the method of rustication. The old “wet” method can be used for insulation with a mortar thickness of no more than 20 mm. This noticeably limits the scope and options for rust. Therefore, the classical method is more suitable for buildings with thick brick walls and without any particular problems with heat loss. As a rule, these are the buildings that make up the historical fund. Wall thickness from 800 mm – compensation for the lack of insulation (for stone), which at that time had not yet been invented. If you choose the right light (insulating) composition of the solution, then you can withstand the thickness of the quadra up to 45 mm.
So, we have a flat wall plane. It can be aligned with lighthouses (with cavities), be just brick or insulation, which is already covered with reinforcing layers.
Stage 1. Markup
Since rustication is, in fact, a geometrically correct pattern, it will require an even marking before starting work. A detailed drawing of the facade with dimensions is the main success factor in this matter. Starting points – horizontal lines – should be immediately drawn along the rough surface. Also noteworthy are the vertical faces of the first and last quadra in the row..
Stage 2. Making a template
The template is the main tool in the formation of a “wet” rusticated facade. It is a profile board with a figured “cutter” of wood or metal fixed on it. This cutter will cut the rust. You can make it by cutting out the shape of the desired profile with a 20 mm plywood jigsaw and fixing it on the board.
Stage 3. Extraction of horizontal rustication
The chosen method consists in the formation of rust with approach to the quadra, that is, the creation of the edge of the quadra plane like a lighthouse. To do this, at the desired height, a guide (bar) should be strengthened along which the template will move. There are many options for the execution of the guide, each master makes a template and guide for himself.
1 is an example of a template; 2 – profiled metal plate; 3 – guide bars
An important point. When making a guide, keep in mind that it should not only ensure the smooth movement of the template, but also set the thickness of the layer under the rusticum. Provide grooves in it, in which the template board will fit.
Having carefully measured the template, we fix the guide at the required distance from the horizontal axis of the marking. Throw in a solution of approximately the required thickness. If the pattern is double, then on two axes. We stretch the template along the guide, removing excess solution. Thus, rearranging the guides, we go through all the horizontal planes.
Stage 4. Extraction of vertical rusts
For the passage of vertical rusts, first mark the plane. Adjusting the guide and template board to work vertically. The difference will be that it will no longer be possible to simply strengthen the vertical bar to the wall – the applied horizontal rustication will interfere. The guide should stand up, passing the finished rustic underneath, and the template board should be modified so that it can withstand the specified layer thickness under the rustic under these conditions.
Stage 5. Corners, frames of windows, doors
At this stage, you will need special precision and accuracy. We mark the plane according to the original project and sketches. In a similar (described) way, but with the help of temporary fasteners, we create rusty and square beacons.
Stage 6. Filling squares
Since it was said above that the template sets not only rust, but also a part of the quadra plane, filling in the voids becomes the easiest part of the job..
Important! Observe the homogeneous composition of the solution to avoid the appearance of defects from varying degrees of moisture absorption and thermal conductivity.
Stage 7. Finishing
If during the work a cement or ready-made insulating mortar was used, then the facade should be covered with a finishing putty for outdoor use, and then painted.
Another type of the “wet” method is the excavation of the rust (not to be confused with the “hood” described above). The excavation is carried out in literally all available ways:
- Rust is pressed according to the pattern with a hammer and a metal bar.
- It is cut out, scraped out of the wet solution with special saws, scrapers, chisels.
- It is cut into the dried solution with mechanical tools.
Something in between the methods described above is the crate method. Simpler rustic shapes (trapezoid, triangle, rectangle, semicircle) can be made by creating a crate, which is then fixed on the wall. The lathing cells are filled with mortar, and after setting, it is removed. In this case, the wooden slats of the crate can have a figured profile.
Ready heat-insulating lightweight solutions:
Name, manufacturer Density of dry solution, kg / m3 Consumption, kg / m2* Packing, kg Packing price, rub. Price 1 m2*, rub. Teplover Light, Ukraine 280 3.8 7 230 125 Teplover Premium, Ukraine (waterproofing + insulation) 370 3.5 7 700 350 SAY THERMOPLAST THERMOVER, Turkey 311 3.2 7 500 228 SATSYS ThermoUm Standard, Czech Republic 380 3.0 7 560 240 SATSYS ThermoUM Xtra, Czech Republic (improved properties) 360 3.0 7 660 282 SATSYS ThermoUm THERMOSAN, Czech Republic (waterproofing + insulation) 420 3.5 7 590 295
* – with a layer thickness of 10 mm
Here is such a time-consuming and multi-stage method used in the old days. Today we are “armed” with modern materials and technologies that not only make it easier, but also speed up work, making it relatively easy and in some ways even pleasant. We will talk about this in the next article..