- Preparing the base
- Making a lining carpet
- Installation of metal strips
- Installation of preparatory bituminous elements
- We mount ordinary tiles
- A few practical tips for installing shingles
- Passages and junctions
- Covering the skate
- Weather conditions and installation of tiles
- Features of fasteners and cutting
- Ventilation arrangement
Bituminous shingles are a very popular roofing material all over the world. With its help, you can create a very beautiful and functional roof..
It is made from a fiberglass base, on which several layers of modified bitumen with polymer additives are applied, which provide the material with high strength, flexibility, and plasticity. Bituminous shingles are shingles, usually 1000×330 mm in size, on the edge of which there are cutouts of various shapes, they then determine the appearance of the finished roof. The front surface of the sheets has a protective coating of basalt chips of a wide variety of colors and shades. The back side of the shingles has a self-adhesive layer covered with a quick release silicone film.
Bituminous shingles are great for roofs of any configuration, including domed, broken, cascading. It can be used on a slope with almost any slope – from 12 to 90 degrees. As a safe and environmentally friendly material with excellent properties, it is used in both residential and industrial construction.
The bituminous tile carpet provides ideal moisture resistance of the roof, excellent sound insulation characteristics. This material is not subject to corrosion, decay, and microorganisms. Bituminous shingles do not fade in the sun, they perfectly withstand temperature changes, the service life of such a coating can be more than 50 years. It also has a low weight, which affects the requirements for rafter structures. Due to the small-piece design, the roof made of bituminous tiles has excellent maintainability, during its installation there is little waste.
The installation itself is quite simple, even one person can easily lay such a coating, having a modest set of inexpensive hand tools, as well as a baggage of basic knowledge and skills.
Preparing the base
The base for a soft roof must be prepared in a special way. For laying bituminous tiles on top of the rafters, they arrange a continuous, even flooring, which can firmly hold a large number of special nails. Each shingle shingle is attached to the base with at least four nails, which on average is about 0.08 kg / m2 such fasteners, moreover, located in a rather unpredictable order. Therefore, the flooring elements must be sufficiently tightly fitted, the maximum allowable gap between them can be 5 mm. Most often, sheets of moisture-resistant plywood, OSB-3, edged or grooved board are used.
Plywood or OSB is attached either directly to the rafters or to a counter-lattice. The counter lattice is usually made with a large distance between the rafter legs, or when the roof is insulated and vaporized with an attic floor. For these purposes, a beam with a section of 100×50 mm is used, laid flat with an interval of 500-600 mm, depending on the dimensions and direction of the flooring elements.
1. Contra-lathing. 2. Large-panel wooden flooring. 3. Air flow. 4. Wind and moisture protection.
5. Counterbeam. 6. Rafter leg. 7. Insulation. 8. Vapor barrier with glued seams.
9. Interior decoration of the premises. 10. Ventilated duct.
The sheets are arranged in a “checkerboard pattern”, shifting the joints by one or two spans. Leave a 3mm gap between them for thermal linear expansion. To securely attach the flooring to the rafter system, use ruffled nails or strong galvanized / anodized self-tapping screws with a sweep head. Fastening at 250 mm intervals.
Attention! The well-known “black” self-tapping screws cannot be used here, as they are too fragile and cannot withstand the expansion of the fixed material.
With a distance between the bars of the counter lattice of 600 mm, sheets with a thickness of 12 mm are used; if there are 900 mm between the rafters, then you need to use 18 mm plywood / OSB; for a step of 1200 mm, sheets of at least 21 mm are needed. The same indicators for the board will be 20, 23, 30 mm, respectively..
Decking sheets are fastened with brushed nails or sturdy countersunk screws.
The floorboard should be used with a specific moisture content of not more than 20%. In length, each of them must overlap at least two spans. Joints can only be made on beams, making sure to leave a gap for expansion caused by changes in temperature and humidity. It is recommended to do docking with an offset for different spans, so you need a board of the same width and thickness, before starting work it makes sense to sort it. To protect such flooring, it is necessary to treat the wood with antipyrine and antiseptics..
If the organization of drainage is envisaged, then sometimes it is necessary to install brackets for attaching gutters on rafters or filly even before installing a solid roofing base.
Making a lining carpet
Depending on the size of the slope of the roof to be covered, a solid or partial underlay must be made over the flooring. For these purposes, bitumen-based roll insulation materials are used, with which manufacturers of soft roofs usually complete their products. Typically, these carpets are made of fiberglass or polyester, with or without self-adhesive stripes. Note that in this case, some developers manage to save a little by using “Euro-roofing material”. True, its thickness is much greater, and, accordingly, when using very elastic tiles of European production, a transition of several millimeters between the lining and OSB can be noticeable.
Terms: 1. Bevels. 2. Overhangs. 3. Endova (gutter). 4. Hip. 5. Skate.
With a slope of more than 200 it is allowed to lay insulating material only in the most vulnerable places for leaks, which are valleys, ridge, eaves, roof ends, roof abutment to vertical walls, interfacing with pipes and dormer windows. Everywhere in the listed areas, the roll material is rolled along the edges, nailed along the edges with an interval of 200 mm. Possible joints are made with 100 mm overlaps, which are glued with special glue. Sometimes, especially in cold weather, the lining carpet must be cut into strips of suitable length in advance and allowed to lie down, straighten.
Laying insulating material on slopes more than 20 °.
1. Overlap at the joint of 100 mm. 2. The material is fastened with nails at intervals of 200 mm.
In valleys, a strip of lining material (1 meter wide) is mounted axially so that the adjacent slopes have 50 cm each.It is ideal if you manage to close this place in one piece (usually the length of the lining roll is 15 meters), when you still need to make docking, then do it at the top of the valley with an overlap of at least 300 mm and careful gluing. Through the ridge, the lining also folds along.
Laying of lining material in valleys. The lining is folded onto adjacent slopes of 50 cm.
1. Place of gluing, overlap not less than 30 cm.
The ridge is covered according to the same principle as the valleys.
If the roof slope is within 12-200, however, most manufacturers offer to make an additional solid underlay. The strips of material are placed along the eaves overhang from bottom to top with a transverse overlap of 100 mm, the sheets are laid longitudinally by 150 mm. All overlaps must be glued with bituminous glue.
Installation of continuous underlayment on roofs with a slope of 12 to 20 °.
1. Overlap between sheets 100 mm. 2. Overlap at the junction of sheets 150 mm.
Installation of metal strips
To protect the ends of the sheathing from moisture, metal elements are mounted along the edge of the eaves overhang and on the lateral sides of the slope before laying the tiles – droppers and pediment strips. Usually these are special profiles made of galvanized sheet metal (0.4–0.6 mm), painted to match the color of bituminous tiles. They are installed on top of the lining carpet, exactly along the cord, with an overlap of about 30-50 mm, nailed in a zigzag manner with an interval of about 100-150 mm and about 30 mm at the joints.
1. Droppers are nailed in a zigzag with an interval of 100-150 mm.
2. At the joints, an overlap of 30-50 mm is made and fixed with nails at intervals of about 30 mm.
It is best to cut such extensions with high-quality metal scissors, then the processing sites do not rust, respectively, there is no need to tint them, which cannot be said about the options using a grinder.
Sometimes the metal of the planks is too strong, and it is difficult to pierce it with standard specialized nails, so it is very convenient to use a pre-made punch from a large steel nail, which simply makes a small notch for fasteners.
Installation of preparatory bituminous elements
Now, along the eaves overhang, ridge-eaves bitumen shingles are being mounted. As a rule, it is a perforated rectangular shingle with a self-adhesive layer, conventionally divided into several sections. Some manufacturers make curtain tiles in the form of a roll, which makes work easier.
Sheet cornice tiles are laid end-to-end with respect to each other. First, remove the protective silicone film from each shingle, and then lay it along one line, 10-15 mm from the bend of the dropper. Nail it from the side of the perforation, nails and joints will subsequently be closed with petals of ordinary tiles.
1. Eaves shingles are placed 10-15 mm from the bend of the drip.
2. The nails are driven in so that the petals of the ordinary tile cover them.
Often, to save money, instead of ridge-cornice tiles, patterns from ordinary sheets are used – shingles with cut off petals.
In valleys, on top of the lining material, a special valley carpet is installed, which is usually made on the basis of polyester and modified bitumen. Its top layer is made in the same color as the main tile and has fine sand topping. They fix it with nails with a 100-mm pitch along the edges, some companies also offer to additionally glue it to the base.
Attention! It is forbidden to hammer in nails for fastening the carpet at a distance of 300 mm from the axis of the valley on both sides.
We mount ordinary tiles
Before starting work, you should sort out all the bundles of tiles so that products with different codes and release dates do not fall on one slope. Some differences in shades are allowed even in the same batches of goods from many manufacturers, therefore it is recommended to mix sheets from several packages before stacking.
Bituminous shingles are installed from the bottom up, from the eaves to the ridge. The first row is set 10–30 mm higher than the lower edge of the eaves tile, the joints and perforations are covered with petals. Installation of shingles of the first row is carried out from the axis of the slope towards the gables. A protective film is removed from each sheet, and it is glued into place, after which the tiles are nailed 20-30 mm from the edge of the shingle base between the petals. When the slope of the slope is less than 45 °, each sheet is mounted with four nails, with a larger slope of the roof, six fasteners are used, one more nail is hammered in the upper corners of the shingles.
Tile sheets are nailed 20-30 mm from the edge of the shingle base between the petals.
Attention! The heads of nails should be on the plane of the shingle, but not cut into it. It is necessary that they are directed strictly perpendicular to the deck.
Each subsequent row begins with a tile cut according to the pattern, so that the nail heads overlap with the petals. The tile is brought to the edge of the pediment bar and the last sheet is cut off flush with it. The place where the shingle lies on the end strip is coated with bituminous glue 100 mm.
The edges of the petals of each new row should be either above the cutouts in the lower shingles, or flush with them. To control the horizontal and accurate direction of the rows, use cords or chalk lines. If the roof has a recessed element, for example a window or attic door, it is generally recommended to completely outline the slope, which will prevent possible inconsistencies of the upper shingles.
In valleys, the shingles must be cut in such a way that the shingles go over the carpet, but its axial part about 150 mm wide remains open. Another way is that from one slope (more shallow or smaller area), the tile goes to the adjacent one exactly 300 mm from the axis of the valley. Further, from the second adjacent slope, the rows overlap the entered shingles by 200 mm, that is, before reaching the axis of 100 mm. All cuts in the valleys are made along cords, the edges of the cut tiles are coated with glue of 100-150 mm. In order not to damage the valley carpet, plywood should be placed under the shingles during cutting.
1. The shingle extends exactly 300 mm onto the adjacent slope. 2. From the adjacent slope, the rows overlap the entered shingles by 200 mm.
A few practical tips for installing shingles
- Do not forget to remove the protective film from the nailed shingles.
- Do not stack shingles with an exposed adhesive layer.
- Take with you a bag / bag to the roof to collect the film removed from the adhesive layer and small pieces of shingles – they do not have to be collected later on throughout the site.
- In order for the sheets to separate well from each other, bend and shake the package before opening..
- The packed material must not be exposed to direct sunlight for a long time.
- So that you can safely stand and work on a steep slope, you can nail temporary slats to the flooring under the bent petals of the already installed tiles..
- For the convenience of feeding material and access to the roof, temporarily leave a small hatch in the deck on one of the slopes unshielded.
Passages and junctions
Often on the roof it is necessary to arrange a through passage for utility pipes, antennas and other elements. For these purposes, use special pass-through elements designed for bituminous tiles. They are nailed to the ramp, and the rows of tiles are trimmed around the penetration and glued to the flange with mastic..
In order to adjoin a roof made of bituminous tiles to a vertical wall or around a pipe, then a triangular strip must be attached to the junction zone of two planes, by analogy with a plinth. Usually it is a bar with a section of 50×50, sawn diagonally.
1. At the junction of two planes, a triangular rail is attached.
Next, a lining carpet is mounted with an approach to a vertical surface. Ordinary shingles are folded onto a rail and cut. After that, the valley carpet is glued to the interface, while at least 300 mm should be in the vertical section and not less than 200 mm – on the slope.
1. The end carpet extends onto the vertical plane by at least 300 mm. 2. At least 200 mm of carpet extends onto the roof slope..
The upper edge of the carpet is covered with a metal L-shaped strip (apron), which is drilled to the wall and sealed with silicone for outdoor use.
1. The abutment strip is nailed and sealed with silicone.
If the pipe has a cross section of 500×500 mm or more, then it is recommended to make a groove on the highest side of the abutment. This is a small wooden ridge that prevents snow from accumulating behind the pipe.
Attention! Brick walls and pipes in front of the junction device must be well plastered and covered with a bitumen primer.
Covering the skate
The covering of the shingles should fit to the mating of adjacent slopes so that there is a minimum gap between them. Now, with the help of a cord, two lines are indicated, parallel to the edge, which will indicate the dimensions of the ridge cover. The ridge is closed either with a ridge-cornice tile, each cut into three parts according to perforation, or with patterns from ordinary sheets.
1. Sheets of ridge-cornice shingles are laid with an overlap of 50 mm.
Ridge elements are attached with the short side along the slope. Pull it from the bottom up, bend it over the edge and nail it with four nails, two on each side. Each subsequent sheet must, overlapping by 50 mm over the previous one, be sure to close the nails. In especially windy areas, the ridge is glued and collected in the direction opposite to the prevailing winds.
Weather conditions and installation of tiles
Contrary to popular belief, it is quite possible to lay bituminous shingles in fairly cold weather, you just need to follow some rules. At a temperature of about + 50 ° C, the packed tiles must be kept in a heated room, and delivered to the place of installation in small quantities. The self-adhesive strip should be warmed up with a construction hairdryer just before installation. Bituminous glue also needs to be heated.
At lower temperatures, the installation of bituminous shingles should be abandoned, since the natural fusion of rows under the influence of solar heat is an important element of fasteners.
For about the same reason, you should not lay the sheets on a wet base, for example, after rain – there is no “sticking” of self-adhesive and coated with bitumen primer elements. The flooring must be thoroughly dried so that moisture does not get canned under a practically airtight covering.
In especially hot weather, it is not recommended to move along the roof made of bituminous shingles; in extreme cases, this must be done in clean, soft shoes using specially made wooden ladders.
Features of fasteners and cutting
For fastening bituminous tiles, galvanized or galvanized nails with a circular (knurled) notch and a wide round head are used. They must be long enough to penetrate the entire roofing pie and fully penetrate the deck sheathing. As a rule, these are nails with a rod with a diameter of 3 mm and a length of 25-30 mm.
Another important element of fasteners is bituminous glue, which is also called a primer, fixer, mastic. We have already mentioned all the places where it is applied. It is applied with a spatula on one of the surfaces to be glued, the layer should be small – about 0.5-1 mm. The setting time of the adhesive mastic is about 5 hours at +20 degrees, the time for complete drying ranges from one day to two weeks, depending on the air temperature and layer thickness. Please note that the fixer is not intended for sealing various sections of the roof, seams, crevices, etc..
Attention! An excess layer of glue can dissolve shingles, form drips.
The shingles are cut using a metal ruler with a sharp roofing knife with a hook-shaped blade. Some craftsmen make do with specially sharpened shoe, breadboard and linoleum knives. It is imperative to arrange a flat, solid cutting platform, especially if it is done on the roof, where there is a danger of damaging already laid roofing layers. An impromptu table made from the remnants of plywood used for the manufacture of flooring is perfect.
Proper ventilation is the key to the durability of the new roof. Bituminous roofing cake creates an almost hermetic layer, therefore, to remove water vapor from wooden structures and insulation, it is necessary to ensure free air circulation in the under-roof space. Properly functioning ventilation can significantly reduce the temperature inside the roof in summer, and in winter it significantly reduces the amount of icicles and ice formed on the slopes..
The roof ventilation system consists of three main elements: inlet openings located above the duct insulation, exhaust openings.
Air inflow is carried out through the very bottom of the roof. One option is to use perforated siding (spotlights) to hem the cornice. It is also possible to arrange ventilation holes in the eaves of the roofing rows. Also, air can enter under the drip, if the cornice is sewn together (lining, plastic …), but it is necessary to have a counter lattice of at least 50 mm in height. The ends of the counter-lattice must be covered with a perforated tape that protects the roof from birds. Exhaust openings are arranged under the ridge itself, they can have the form of a pitched exhaust outlet, gable gratings on the sides of the roof, ridge aerator.
Between the solid flooring and the insulation covered with an insulating membrane, it is necessary to leave a gap of about 40-50 mm when the slope is more than 20 degrees and 70-80 mm when installing flat roofs (less than 20 degrees). This effect is achieved by using a counter lattice from a bar of the appropriate section.
Attention! An unjustified increase in the ventilation gap can lead to a deterioration in air exchange, due to the appearance of a large flow resistance, inertia and possible turbulence.
The cross-section of the openings and the configuration of the supply and exhaust ventilation depends on the area of the slope, its slope, climatic conditions of the roof and its complexity. On average, these indicators fluctuate within 1 / 300-1 / 500 of the roof area. It is believed that the area of the exhaust openings should be at least 10% larger than the cross-section of the supply openings, this improves the natural air draft under the roof.
Most manufacturers offer all the necessary accessories for roof ventilation, often in colors that match the shingles. Such valves have reliable protection from rain, snow, insects and birds..
Attic roofs can be ventilated in the good old fashion – through a skylight, which often has an interesting, bizarre shape and is a real decoration of the facade and roof.