- Why location is so important
- Location of aquifers
- Water search methods
- Observation methods
- Practical methods
- Professional methods
- Dependence of water quality on the depth of the well
- Where you can’t dig a well
Determining the correct location for the construction of a well is paramount. This is especially important if the site is not yet built up, because it is much more rational to first choose the most favorable place for the well and, with this in mind, to develop the rest of the territory.
Why location is so important
A well constructed well will provide water for irrigation, household needs, and also for drinking. The main thing is that the water in it is suitable for this. Therefore, the work begins with finding the right place. First of all, you need to talk to your neighbors and, if they have a well, find out from them the depth of the aquifer, as well as the quality of the water in it. With this information, you will have an idea of the approximate depth of your well. Not necessarily, if your neighbors have a mirror depth of 5 meters in your well, your well will have water at the same depth. The fact is that the aquifer also has its own relief, like the earth’s surface..
When choosing a place for digging a well, one should avoid places located near sources of pollution: a toilet, aeration field of a septic tank, burial sites, etc. The quality of water depends entirely on the location of the well, therefore, the choice of a place should be taken responsibly.
Location of aquifers
Layers of various thicknesses and dissimilar in composition lie in the ground. Some of them are water-permeable, others are completely impervious. Water in the soil is retained by waterproof layers. They do not let it go to the surface and deep. These layers are mainly composed of clay and stones. Sand layers are located between these layers. They retain water. This is the layer that you need to get to during the digging process. The challenge is that in some places the sands can be thin. The largest volumes of water are in layers that are not located strictly horizontally, but with bends – in places of kinks. Such places are called underground lakes. Often they are located under several clay layers and the water in them is well filtered..
Water search methods
There are many methods for finding water. For a more accurate result, it is better to use several methods at once..
People have used these methods from time immemorial. To do this, just observe nature and animals. For example, behind the fog. In summer or late spring, inspect the site early in the morning. In places where groundwater is close, there will be fog. The thicker the fog, the closer the water. You can also follow the animals: field mice do not build their nests in places where the water is close, horses or dogs in extreme heat dig holes in the ground, where the humidity level is highest. The chicken will not lay where water is close, but the goose loves moisture. Moshkara in the summertime huddles in heaps just above humid places. Plants can also help with the search. Mother-and-stepmother, nettle and sorrel grow in places where the soil is well hydrated. Cherries and apple trees planted in dry soil will never grow well. Often such trees get sick, and their fruits rot..
Place glass jars of the same volume (upside down) throughout the site. This should be done early in the morning. Exactly one day later, check the condensation on the walls of the can. The more condensation, the closer the water is. You can also use salt or silica gel. Take dry, oven-heated salt, pour it into an unglazed earthenware pot, weigh it, wrap it with gauze and bury it in the ground to a depth of half a meter. After a day, take out the pot and weigh it again. The greater the difference, the closer the water. For this method, you can also use a brick, for which you need to prepare it – break it into small parts and dry well.
A long-known method is dowsing or dowsing. This method is considered the most effective than the above methods. To use it correctly, you need to be careful. Find two branches of the vine that come out of the same trunk and are angled to each other. Cut them off with part of the trunk and dry thoroughly. Next, bring these branches to the site and spread their angle by 150 °. It is important that the barrel is facing up. Walk around the entire area slowly. In places with an aquifer, the trunk will tilt towards the ground. This should be done early in the morning or in the evening..
Many people use electrodes. You need to take two rods from the electrodes and bend them at right angles (with the letter D). Next, carry the device so that the free part is in a horizontal position. Where there is water, the electrodes will twist and cross. The disadvantage of this method is that the electrodes will react not only to aquifers, but also to underground communications. Before examining the soil with this method, study the location of pipes underground..
Drilling is considered the most accurate method. In order to scout the situation with water – drill a hole in the ground with an ordinary garden drill with extension cords. The well needs to be made to a depth of 6 meters or more. Having stumbled upon water, be sure to take it for analysis to find out about its quality.
Dependence of water quality on the depth of the well
Water is located at several levels in the earth. At a shallow depth (up to 5 m) there are upper waters. These waters are formed by rainwater that has seeped into the interior. This layer is the most easily accessible, but the water in it does not have time to be purified, since it does not undergo natural filtration. This water is not drinkable at all. In addition, in such a shallow well, depending on the season and the amount of precipitation, an insufficient amount of water can be observed. In dry weather, the well can simply dry out.
A good well requires water from a depth of at least 15 meters. It is there that the layers of sand lie, which serve as a wonderful filter from impurities, impurities, and also accumulate a large amount of water..
The purest water is located even deeper. To reach it, you need to go through several waterproof layers of earth, and for this you need to drill wells.
Where you can’t dig a well
Firstly, in no case should you dig a well in the lowlands. Of course, the likelihood of quickly reaching the level of the aquifer is higher, but you cannot build a well here. Sediments will accumulate in this place, thereby swamping and polluting it. Water from such a well will only be suitable for irrigation. The most successful area is the plain.
Secondly, there is no need to build a well if there are buildings or structures nearby. There is a chance that by digging, you can get on quicksand. This is fraught with soil displacement. Movement in soil near a structure can displace the foundation, which will affect the integrity and strength of both the foundation and walls. This will not lead to destruction, but the appearance of cracks on the walls is quite likely.
Also, you cannot build wells next to compost pits and septic tanks. Poisonous substances will certainly enter your well through the soil. Try to place the well and the compost pit as far apart as possible.
Tip: the best time to dig a well is late summer or winter. During these periods, the water is at a minimum level. Accordingly, the work will be much easier to do, and over time there will be more water..