- Foundation – monolithic concrete
- Concreting sequence
- The sequence of erection of the oven type “Shvedka”
- Furnace appliances
- Furnace masonry tools
- Features of pipe laying
The “Shvedka” type oven is a warm, cozy home, delicious food. Significant advantages of the stove: small area, less wood consumption, combining a heating stove and the possibility of cooking. We have prepared for you step-by-step instructions with drawings and ordering so that you can fold it yourself.
Foundation – monolithic concrete
For the foundation for the furnace, B15 (M200) concrete is suitable. To prepare such concrete, the components are taken in the following proportion: cement – 1 part, crushed stone – 4 parts, sand – 2 parts.
Cement must be taken at least M400. A large aggregate can be crushed stone or gravel, the particle size of which does not exceed 30 mm. For concrete work, sand with impurities of no more than 10% is suitable. These include clay, mica, organic matter, and particulate matter. Impurities in coarse aggregate should be less than 2%.
The necessary materials for the foundation can be calculated based on the consumption per 1 m3 ready-mixed concrete:
- Cement M400 – 325 kg / m3.
- Sand – 1300 kg / m3.
- Gravel (crushed stone) – 1300 kg / m3.
- Water – 205 l / m3.
For the production of concrete work, you must have a tool with which:
- concrete mix is laid (shovel, trowel);
- tamp (tampers, probe);
- smoothen (ironing board, grater, grout, iron, corner).
1 – probe; 2 – narrow rammer; 3 – round rammer; 4 – square rammer; 5 – trowel; 6 – scraper; 7 – half-graters; 8 – ironing board
It is very important to determine the depth to which you need to lay the foundation for the furnace. It depends on the ability of the soil to resist the loads on it (bearing capacity). There are quite a few soils with a weak bearing capacity. Under the action of loads, they can change their original structure (subsidence loess and containing soluble salts, swelling clayey, of biological origin, as well as water-saturated, increasing in volume in winter).
So, for example, for fine (silty) sands, sandy loams, loams and clays, in which the groundwater is above the depth of soil freezing, the bottom of the foundation is assigned below this level. The freezing depth is determined based on the results of many years of observations.
1 – sand pillow; 2 – gravel; 3 – depth of freezing; 4 – monolithic foundation; 5 – waterproofing; 6 – floor level; 7 – brickwork
This is the case if the house can be unheated in winter. If the house is heated throughout the winter, then the base of the foundation should be at a depth of more than 50 cm from the layout of the land plot.
In dense soils with good load-bearing capacity, it is possible to concrete the foundation without formwork. Then a hole is dug exactly to the size of the foundation. If the soil is crumbling, formwork is required. It is made from coniferous or deciduous wood, which is not subject to warpage. Boards are taken with a thickness of at least 19 mm and a moisture content of no more than 25%.
At the bottom of the pit under the foundation, a pillow with a thickness of at least 15-20 cm is made of sand and gravel, which is compacted.
When placing the concrete mix, be sure to tamp or compact it to release any air bubbles that appear in it. This increases the density of the concrete, and therefore the strength..
Caring for freshly laid concrete consists in maintaining the required temperature and humidity for it. This is a protection against rapid drying of the concrete surface in windy hot weather using any kind of wet coating (burlap, tarpaulin, wet sawdust or sand).
Fresh concrete is protected from excessive moisture, drying, and cooling within one to two weeks in accordance with the outside temperature. The most important thing is that the concrete gains at least half of its full strength..
It is possible to remove the formwork only when sufficient concrete strength (50%) has been achieved. Most often this does not happen earlier than 7-14 days at temperatures from +5 to +20 ° С. The higher the temperature, the faster the strength gains.
Waterproofing (2 layers of roofing material) is placed on top of the hardened concrete. The size of the foundation must be taken 100 mm larger at each end of the oven.
The sequence of erection of the oven type “Shvedka”
For oven masonry, a brick is needed that will withstand high temperatures. These include ordinary clay (GOST 390–96) and refractory fireclay bricks (GOST 530–2012).
Important! For kiln work, the use of silicate, hollow, unburned, cracked bricks is unacceptable.
In total, for a stove of the “Swedish” type, excluding the pipe, it is necessary:
- Clay brick – 505 pieces.
- Refractory bricks – 25 pieces.
The laying of the stove can be carried out using clay-sand mortar, or a ready-made fire-resistant mortar for stove work. Today, stores offer several types of such solutions..
Clay-sand mortar can be prepared based on the following proportion for clay of different fat content:
- Oily clay (2-4% sand) – 1 part clay: 2.5 parts sand.
- Medium clay (15% sand) – 1 part clay: 1.5 parts sand.
- Skinny clay (30% sand) – 1: 1.
To prepare the solution, the clay is first soaked for 24 hours, then sand is gradually added to it in portions, constantly stirring until a homogeneous mass. Water is also added in portions. Finally, add water just before work. The clay solution should easily slide off the shovel without spreading.
- Blowing door (140×140 mm) – 1 piece.
- Furnace door (210×250 mm) – 1 piece.
- Cleaning door – 5 pcs.
- Gate valve with a hole (120×210 mm) – 1 piece.
- Oven (300х365х450 mm) – 1 piece.
- Plate (410×710 mm) – 1 piece.
- Grate grate – 1 piece.
- Metal sheet (750×500 mm) – 1 piece.
The oven can be prepared from sheet steel by welding. For protection, the outer surface is coated with fireproof enamels or varnishes.
A metal sheet (750×500 mm) is laid directly under the firebox on asbestos cement.
Furnace masonry tools
1 – pickaxe; 2 – various trowels; 3 – jointing; 4 – level; 5 – square; 6 – mallet; 7 – plumb line
The firebox and chimney (chimney) are the main parts of the furnace body. Fuel is burned in the firebox. Smoke turns increase the inner surface of the furnace, accumulating heat in its massif, and transfer it to the heated room.
Furnace appearance: 1 – cleaning doors; 2 – blower door; 3 – furnace door; 4 – oven; 5 – cooking stove; 6 – valve
A grate is installed in the bottom of the firebox for air access to the fire. To ensure a normal combustion process, the draft in the furnace is regulated by a certain position of the furnace and blower doors. The heat transfer of the considered Shvedka furnace is 3200 kcal / hour. It includes a cooking chamber and an oven..
It is necessary to start furnace work only if there is a cover over the intended place of the furnace, at least temporarily. It is advisable to pre-make a selection of bricks for each row with an attachment and dry dressing.
Before starting laying, it is necessary to check all dimensions of the foundation and determine the orientation of the furnace, including the place where the pipe passes through the ceiling, as well as the roof. Immediately before work, ordinary clay brick is soaked for 2 minutes, and fireclay is only rinsed.
The first and second rows are laid with the bandaging of the seams by at least 1/2 brick. For masonry with ordinary clay bricks, a seam of less than 5 mm is required. Allowed in the case of using 3/4 brick, dressing for 1/4 brick.
Important! Masonry must be carried out, observing verticality along the plumb line and horizontalness along the level of all seams.
The third, fourth rows form the ash chamber. 3 cleaning doors are also installed here. They are inserted with a gap of 3-5 mm directly during masonry work. The gap is filled with an asbestos cord. The top of the doors should be at the level of the horizontal masonry joint.
In the fifth row, the furnace is laid out with refractory bricks, the thickness of the seam for which should not be more than 3 mm. Here the grate is installed with a gap of 3-5 mm. The lattice gaps are directed along the firebox. The gap is filled with sand or ash. An oven is also installed in this row. Chimneys begin to form at the rear of the oven.
Important! Bandaging of refractory and clay bricks is not allowed, since they have different expansion values under the influence of temperature and can contribute to the formation of cracks.
The sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth rows form the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber door is installed with a gap (3-5 mm) filled with an asbestos cord. The wire screwed to the door is embedded in the brickwork. Fireclay brick between the furnace and the oven is placed on the edge.
The tenth row assumes the overlap of the oven. Between the oven and the furnace partition, raise by 1–2 cm. Next, a layer of clay-sand mortar is placed on the oven to the level of the partition. A corner 1000x40x40 mm is laid on the front side under the slab.
Eleventh row. The hob is laid down and smoke channels are formed further.
Twelfth-sixteenth rows. The cooking chamber, chimney channels are formed, taking into account the dressing of the seams.
Seventeenth, eighteenth rows. To cover the cooking chamber, bricks are placed on strip steel and corners. A wire is screwed to them, which is embedded in the masonry..
In the nineteenth and twentieth rows, two cleaning doors are installed.
The twenty-first – twenty-eighth rows form chimneys according to the orders. In the twenty-seventh row, a gate valve is also installed with a gap (3-5 mm) and embedded with an asbestos cord.
In the twenty-ninth row, the oven masonry expands by 5 cm for the cornice. All channels are closed except for the pipe.
The thirtieth row assumes an expansion of another 5 cm.
Thirty-first row. The furnace is reduced to the original size..
Features of pipe laying
Next, a pipe of five bricks is laid. Three rows before the ceiling, the laying of pipe fluffing begins to protect the wooden structures of the floor from hot gases. The pipe thickness in this place should be 1.5 bricks. Also increase the thickness of the pipe when passing through wooden roof structures. A metal cap is placed on top of the pipe. The entire outer part of the pipe is laid using a cement-sand masonry mortar.
The pipe above the roof is laid out in height according to the scheme. To increase traction, the height is related to the distance from the roof ridge..
Warmth, comfort and kindness, will fill the stove with your beloved home!