We’ve devoted an entire series of articles to the basics of a smart vineyard, talking about its features and the care of this whimsical crop. But, realizing that caring for grapes is not easy, we offer a short calendar that will help you not to forget the most important thing..
It is clear that in winter there is much less work in the garden and vegetable garden. The vineyard is no exception. But right now, while there are not so many worries, it is time to examine the trellises in order to repair them, if necessary, to clear them of the remnants of the vine. If you have covered vine bushes, then check their condition, there is snow – throw on the vineyard for additional protection. You can also check the planting material if you have prepared it for the spring, paying attention to the roots, which should remain moist..
It’s time to check the condition of the garden tools, stock up on fertilizers and means against pests and diseases of grapes. Until the hot season in the garden begins, calmly visit the specialty stores to buy everything you need. Again, do not forget to check the seedlings, if the apartment is warm, you can start growing from cuttings. In the last month of winter, you can also prune uncovered grapes.
In the first week of March, the pruning of non-covering grape varieties should be completed in order not to let the vine start to “cry”, that is, to release the juice from the breakages and cuts of the shoots. It’s time to visit the market to select suitable seedlings without haste, in advance. You can start updating the trellises and building new ones where you decided to plant grapes or expand it.
Is the soil dry? Doesn’t it promise frosts down to -10 ° С? You can free the bushes from shelters. If the air warms up to + 4–6 ° С, prophylactic spraying of grapes with means against pests and diseases should be carried out. Seedlings can be planted in mid-April, but a dry garter should be carried out after the frost has passed, but until the buds have swollen.
So the first grape buds have blossomed. It is time to remove excess shoots, leaving only the most developed fruit arrows. The second time you can break off the shoots when they have already reached 10 cm, and the third time – 35 cm. It is advisable to process the grapes with fungicides when there are already four to five leaves on the sleeves. Are shoots growing? It’s time to carry out the next garter, pointing the arrows in the right direction. It is better to remove the excess upper inflorescences, like the stepsons. Annual seedlings are usually planted at the end of May..
In the first month of summer, vigorous shoots are pinched about 5-10 cm from the point of growth. This must be done before flowering. But when the first flowers appeared on the grapes, it is worth again treating the vines with fungicides. Continue tying the shoots, you should feed the grapes with ovary. If there is no rain, do not forget about watering so that the harvest is especially rich..
Now, when the berries are preparing to pour actively, you can feed the grapes with preparations that contain potassium, phosphorus or nitrogen. You should also treat plants with drugs against fungal diseases, now their threat is especially great. And again, do not forget about the garter of growing vines, pinching. The earliest varieties can ripen at the end of July, so you can start harvesting.
Young and planted bushes should be fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, as well as a fruiting vine. If the leaves begin to wither and turn yellow, the grapes may not have enough moisture, do not forget about watering. In mid-August, vines are chased, that is, all the tops of the shoots with six to eight upper leaves are removed. We harvest mid-early varieties and start doing it, for example, making wine or grape juice, compotes, jams.
In September, an active harvesting process is underway. If there are suspicions of the appearance of diseases and pests, treatment should be carried out again, but carefully, not using chemistry dangerous to humans on vines from which the bunches have not yet been removed. Feeding with phosphorus and potassium is relevant, the vineyard will begin to prepare for the cold.
In October, a new grape should be planted; it takes root well during this period. You should only cover the new seedlings with needles or peat. At the same time, you should tackle the seedlings that you plant in the spring. Dig them up, soak them in water for at least five hours, and then store them. Harvesting ends, all grapes are harvested before the first frost. You can prune the vine after the last leaves have fallen. Dispose of all plant waste, but do not use it in compost heaps. The soil between the bushes should be dug, choosing a dry period without rain. Before the first frost, the grapes should also be well watered for the last time this season..
Covering grape varieties should be prepared for frost, use soil, peat, sawdust, needles to cover mature vines that can already tolerate temperatures down to -10 ° C. The garters are removed, the remnants of the pruned vine are removed. You should also deal with garden tools, which need to be washed and disinfected..
Relax! Of course, you can inspect the trellises again and check the “fur coat” on the covered bushes, but leave these works for January, as we wrote. The winegrower also needs rest, although the real enthusiasts of these works, of course, only dream about it.