The content of the article
- When to Strawberry
- Feeding steps
- How to feed strawberries
- Organic fertilizer
- Manure and humus
- Dairy products
- Mineral fertilizers for strawberries
- Ammofoska and ammonium nitrate
- Complex fertilizer “Ryazanochka”
- Features of top dressing in spring
- How to fertilize young plants
- How to feed an adult strawberry
- Fertilizer for strawberries when planting
Sweet and juicy strawberries are the weakness of many. It is tasty and healthy. Its cultivation is possible on different soils. For good fruit development, it must be fed. To this end, fertilizers for strawberries are widely used, contributing to the activation of the growth of the berry culture and its active fruiting. Find out in what proportions, when and how to use top dressing for it.
When to Strawberry
You can prepare for the new garden season already during the last snow melt. When fertilizer is administered on time, new kidneys form faster. Not every garden or garden has fertile soil. If the soil has not been fertilized for a long time and is already depleted, you can not even dream of a rich harvest. Regular replenishment is necessary for the soil, and for the bushes themselves. At the same time, special care is required in the processing of repair varieties of berries. They are more susceptible to other types of food than other types. For this reason, they are fertilized with a time interval of a week..
Fertilizer is used in three stages: after winter at the beginning of the garden season, during fruiting and in autumn. For the first time, strawberries are fed in order to promptly stimulate the growth of young shoots and first leaves. The procedure is carried out in late April – early May. Re-processing is done in July. The second feeding of strawberries contributes to the formation of new roots and buds. The first fruits will be in July. Fertilized for the third time in mid-September. Recharge during this period is necessary to prepare the culture for wintering.
How to feed strawberries
Fertilizers for berry culture are mineral, organic and complex. Mineral fertilizers are synthetic substances developed in laboratories. The greatest demand among them are urea, nitrate, sulfates, diammophos. They contain micro and macro elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, manganese). There are many enterprises engaged in the production of mineral fertilizers (Gumi-Omi, Agricole, Fertika, Akron, ChemAgroProm).
Organic fertilizers for strawberries are substances of natural origin. These include:
- chicken droppings;
- wood ash;
- spoiled milk;
It should be understood that the use of organics will not bring large fruits, but they are absolutely harmless to humans. In addition, the application of such natural fertilizers does not require restrictions in proportions: they can feed the plant in any quantity. Fruit culture will absorb as many nutrients as it needs.
Complex fertilizers are designed to combine the action of mineral and organic substances. Ready-made options are available, including potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, magnesium (“Ovary berry for strawberries”, “Ryazanochka”, etc.). Among the wide variety of preparations of this type available today, preference should be given to those in which there is more nitrogen in percentage terms than all other components.
Feeding with substances of natural origin helps to get a rich harvest without harm to human health, plants and soil. In addition, the use of organics will be much cheaper than the purchase of mineral or complex preparations. Each of the varieties of natural nutrition has its own characteristics and advantages..
Manure and humus
Manure (cow) is a mixture of straw, hay and animal excrement. It has long been used as top dressing for soil and various crops (potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, etc.). Manure as a fertilizer for strawberries is the best option for feeding in the spring before the flowering of the plant begins. It is prepared as follows: 2 cups of manure are diluted in 10 liters of water and 1 tablespoon of sodium sulfate is added. All components are mixed to a homogeneous mass. This liquid is watered under the area under each bush (1 l).
Benefits of using cow dung:
- availability and low cost;
- high efficiency;
- saturation of the earth and berry culture with necessary microelements and other useful substances;
- clay soil acidity reduction under the influence of manure.
Humus is a completely decomposed manure. He is considered the best top dressing in the spring. Humus is used at the rate of 5 kg per 1 square meter of the area of beds. It can be used during the planting period with subsequent care of the crop. To get humus, you should shift the manure with weeds. Fertilizer for strawberries will be ready in 7 months. The advantages of humus are:
- saturation of plants with useful substances with trace elements in an easily digestible form for them;
- a positive effect on the soil – soil saturated with humus creates a favorable environment for the rapid and proper development of berry culture;
- long-term feeding – humus nourishes the plant and the earth throughout the year.
Chicken droppings are used as nitrogen fertilizer. It is prepared as follows: 20 parts of water are taken for one part of bird organics. The resulting solution is infused for 3 days and watered with 0.5 l of the mixture for each berry bush. Chicken droppings are widely used among gardeners due to their accessibility and effective effect on the growth and development rates of berries..
An excellent top dressing is sour milk (sourdough). Confirmation of this fact is the statement of experienced gardeners that poorly acidic soil has a beneficial effect on productivity. To normalize the acidity level of the earth, you can add sour milk to it. Its difference from other organics is the method of application: top dressing is not poured under the root, but a little further from it (about 7-10 cm from the bush) or the spraying method is used.
A fertilizer is prepared for strawberries as follows: the product is mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 2. Plants are fed at the beginning of the summer season, then after harvest and in the fall. The advantages of using dairy products:
- enrichment of open ground with a storehouse of useful substances and trace elements (sulfur, calcium, etc.);
- a significant increase in yield and fruiting time;
- fast plant growth;
- increase the defenses of berry culture against pests and diseases.
Available and convenient for cooking fertilizer are ordinary yeast. This iodized product is beneficial for the plant. A solution for feeding can be prepared as follows: 1 kg of yeast is diluted in 5 liters of water. The resulting concentration should be diluted again with water before use. For 0.5 l of yeast solution you need 10 l of water. After repeated preparation of the mixture, it is necessary to process the plant. For 10 bushes, 0.5 l of solution will go. Pour it right under the bushes.
If only dry yeast in bags is at hand, then the solution is prepared as follows: one bag of product and two tablespoons of sugar are taken on one bucket of water. To begin with, the yeast is diluted in a glass of warm water, then granulated sugar is added to the solution and mixed until completely dissolved. After that, the contents of the glass are poured into a bucket of water. Allow to infuse for 2 hours. After this time, the nutrient solution is ready for use. The advantages of using yeast are:
- valuable composition of the product (iodine, iron, phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.);
- culture growth stimulation;
- a significant increase in plant yield;
- root strengthening;
- a positive effect on the state of the soil due to its saturation with beneficial microorganisms;
- increased plant adaptation to new conditions after transplantation and disease resistance.
Feeding berries with yeast, preferably 2-3 times during the summer period. The tool is used at the beginning of the season, repeatedly – during the flowering period and after harvesting. With all the advantages, it also has disadvantages. It can only be used in warm weather. In cool weather, fermentation does not occur and the process stops.
Wood ash contains a significant amount of useful trace elements. This folk remedy is rich in potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, iron and many other nutrients necessary for the growth and development of plants. To use it, it is necessary to introduce dry ash into the grooves of the beds. Pour the powder at the rate of 150 g per 1 linear meter. To enhance the effect, it is desirable to mix ash with peat. This fertilizer has one drawback: ash cannot be used with urea. The advantages of using wood ash are:
- stimulation of berry culture growth;
- saturation of soil with nutrients and improvement of its structure;
- yield increase;
- improved fruit taste.
Mineral fertilizers for strawberries
The taste and appearance of strawberries only benefit from the use of mineral fertilizers. Berries grow large, bright, sweet and juicy. The use of minerals requires caution and strict adherence to proportions. Excessive doses can harm not only the plant, but also human health. The deadline for introducing mineral supplements is 2 weeks before the fruits of the plant ripen..
Ammofoska and ammonium nitrate
Strawberries are “fed” in the second year after planting with ammonium nitrate at the rate of 100 g per 10 square meters. This fertilizer is considered the most effective. However, in those cases when a lot of organic top dressing was introduced into the soil before planting, ammonium is not needed. If strawberries are planted for the third year in a row, then 10 g of superphosphate, 150 g of ammonium nitrate and 100 g of potassium chloride must be introduced into the soil.
This amount of fertilizer will be needed for 10 square meters of usable area. The finished solution is poured under the bushes. The plant itself does not need to be watered. Usually, the earth is fertilized with half of the top dressing in the spring, and the rest is introduced after the harvest. It is forbidden to increase the dose of nitrate. It is saturated with nitrogen, and excessive use can lead to a loss of sugar. The berry will be watery and tasteless. In the spring, you can use ammonium nitrate in combination with ammophos in a ratio of 1: 2. Water the product at the rate of 15 g per 1 sq.m. in a liquid solution with water.
Any mineral substance has its advantages and disadvantages. The vast majority of synthetic dressings are dangerous when used in large proportions. Nitroammophosk (azofosk) is no exception. It should be used in the right doses. So, during the planting period of strawberries for every square meter, you need to pour two tablespoons of the granules of this drug. In cases where the plant is re-planted, nitroammophos is applied immediately after harvesting. Prepare the solution as follows: for 10 liters of water you need to add 1 tablespoon of fertilizing.
It should be remembered that with its effectiveness, nitroammophosk is considered one of the dangerous drugs. This synthetic substance is forbidden to be used uncontrollably, since this approach can lead to the formation of nitrates in the soil. Fertilizer belongs to the third hazard level: it is highly flammable. The granules of the agent are capable of exploding. You should not forget about the short shelf life of nitroammophos.
Complex fertilizer “Ryazanochka”
Ready-made dressing for strawberries “Ryazanochka” is very popular among gardeners. It consists of micro and macro elements (nitrogen, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, copper, potassium, boron, molybdenum, cobalt). For root dressing, you should prepare a solution at the rate of 1 teaspoon of Ryazanochka (4 g) per 10 liters of water. The plant must be fed morning and evening.
The finished product is consumed depending on the period of development of the berry culture. So, at the beginning of the vegetative development of strawberries, the solution is watered at the rate of 5 liters per 2-3 square meters. area. When budding, at the beginning of flowering and active fruiting of the berry, 10 liters of the drug are spent on the same area. The last time the plant is “fed” 2-3 weeks before harvest.
Ryazanochka can also be used by the foliar method. Only in this case the solution is prepared differently:? teaspoons (2 g) are added to 10 liters of water. The resulting product is sprayed with berry culture in the morning and evening in cloudy, but not rainy weather twice during the summer season. The advantages of Ryazanochka include the following properties:
- a positive effect on the taste and appearance of the fruit;
- increasing the yield of berry culture through the use of integrated dressing;
- beneficial effect on berry resistance to disease.
Features of top dressing in spring
Fertilize strawberries in the spring should be. The further development of the plant and the result of the harvest largely depend on how correctly this procedure is carried out. It is important to know the feeding pattern of the berry culture, and that feeding young strawberries in the spring is different from feeding her adult “relatives”.
How to fertilize young plants
Young strawberries planted in the autumn, there is no urgent need to fertilize in early spring. If you wish, you can give her additional food, but for this you need to prepare the following solution: for 10 liters of water add 0.5 liters of manure or bird droppings, 1 tablespoon of sodium sulfate. The resulting mixture is poured under each strawberry bush, 1 liter, not more.
How to feed an adult strawberry
Adult plants are fertilized with the same means as young crops, only the earth, when loosened, is sprinkled with ash at the rate of 2 cups per square meter of area. An excellent biofertilizer is nettle infusion. They fill it with a bucket, fill it with water and insist for a week (as little as possible). The resulting solution is sprayed on the plant at the beginning of the formation of bushes and after harvesting. The use of mullein is effective: 5 parts of water and 60 g of superphosphate and 100–150 g, 1 bucket of water are taken for 1 part of it. The resulting solution is poured into grooves made along beds 4–5 cm deep.
Fertilizer for strawberries when planting
The first top dressing is performed in mid-April. For these purposes, use mullein or bird droppings. With repeated feeding, already during the flowering period of the plant, strawberries are fertilized with minerals. And finally, the third, final recharge is carried out using infusion of weeds. In summer, feeding with liquid manure is good. In the fall, you can use both organic and mineral fertilizers.