# How to calculate the total cost of the loan – where indicated in the contract and what it is made of

## The content of the article

Banks, private and state, try to attract customers with their loan offers. For this reason, in advertisements you can often see attractive loan rates, but in fact the overpayment is a large amount. The full cost of the loan is a formula, the decoding of which includes, in addition to the interest rate, all additional payments on a consumer or any other loan.

## What is the full cost of a loan

Using the offer of the bank to borrow money from him, you should always know that interest is only a fee for using money. In addition, there are additional commissions that are also added to the monthly payments. The entire amount of these components is called the full interest rate. CPM, such an abbreviation of this indicator, is the main value that you need to focus on when choosing a loan. Information on the total loan value is provided in annual percent and is indicated in the upper right corner of the bank loan agreement.

Earlier, the concept of effective interest rate was used. It was calculated using the compound interest formula, which included the borrower’s shortfall in income from a possible investment of the amount of interest payments on the loan over the loan term at the same interest rate as on the loan. For this reason, even in the absence of additional payments, the rate was higher than the nominal. It did not reflect the borrower’s real costs of servicing the debt, which the client of the bank found out only when it came time to pay off the loan.

### Legal regulation

Seeing this state of things, the Central Bank took the side of ordinary inhabitants and obliged all credit and financial institutions to bring the full cost of the loan to their customers. In 2008, the Bank of Russia issued a directive “On the Procedure for Settlement and Bringing to the Borrower – Individual the Full Cost of the Loan”. After the entry into force of the federal law “On Consumer Credit (Loan)”, and this happened on July 1, 2014, the value of the total cost of borrowed funds is determined depending on the average market loan cost established by the Central Bank.

## How to find out the price of a loan

It is noteworthy, but in microfinance companies the full cost of the loan is always indicated, and all other payments relate only to penalties and penalties for late payments and defaults. At the bank, the main indicator is the interest rate for using the loan, additional payments that relate to the loan are indicated by separate clauses in the agreement and additional agreements thereto..

### Notification of the full cost of the loan

Previously, the CPM indicator could be indicated in the contract, but the value there was written in small print, which did not immediately catch the eye. According to federal law, a loan agreement is divided into 2 parts: general and individual conditions. So, in the second part, which has a tabular form, the number of UCS is necessarily prescribed in the largest font that is used during registration. Information is indicated in a frame that should cover at least 5% of the total sheet area on which individual loan conditions are written.

## Which includes the full cost of the loan

The maximum possible CPM value should not exceed one third of the average market value and is reported to the borrower without fail. In order to figure out where the final CPM figure comes from and why it can sometimes differ from the value in the advertisement or on the website of a credit institution, you need to know all its components. These include:

• loan body and interest on it;
• application review fee;
• commission for execution of loan agreements and their issuance;
• interest on opening and annual maintenance of an account (loan) or credit card;
• borrower liability insurance;
• assessment and insurance of collateral;
• voluntary insurance;
• notarization.

## What expenses do not increase the cost of a loan

In addition to the mandatory payments that are included in the CPM, other payments may be levied from the borrower that do not affect the calculation of the effective one, i.e. full rate:

• payment for non-performance of the contract. This includes all kinds of fines and penalties charged in connection with late payment of the next payment..
• voluntary payments. These include the bank’s commission for early repayment of a loan, payment for statements and certificates, restoration of a lost credit card, etc..
• additional fees. Here we are talking about payments that are in no way related to the contract, but may be obligatory in connection with Russian law (for example, an insurance policy) or initiated by the borrower himself (additional insurance).

## How to calculate the full cost of a loan

You can take an interest in the PSK formula even before concluding a contract at a bank branch. It must be provided without fail before signing the agreement. You can count it yourself. However, in this case, it is necessary to carefully approach the calculation and not to miss a single moment, since this can lead to inaccuracies. Very often, borrowers make gross errors by inattentively reading the contract and skipping certain data.

### PSK formula

The full cost of the loan is calculated based on the norms established by the Central Bank of Russia. The formula itself and the calculation algorithm are constantly being improved, therefore, independently determining the UCS, you need to apply for the latest relevant data, which are published on the regulator’s website. Recent changes in the methodology were made in connection with the adoption of the law on consumer lending. The size of the UCS is calculated as follows:

UCS = i? Nbsp; nbsp; 100 where

CPM – the total cost of the loan, expressed as a percentage, accurate to the third decimal place;

ChBP – the number of base periods during the calendar year (according to the Central Bank methodology, one year is 365 days);

i – interest rate of the base period, which is expressed in decimal form.

(FORMULA)

? – this is “sigma”, which means summation (in this formula, from the first payment to the mth).

DPk – the amount of the k-th cash payment under the contract. The amount of the loan provided to the borrower is affixed with a “-” sign, and repayment payments with a “+” sign.

qk – the number of full base periods from the date of loan to the date of the k-th payment.

ek – the period, which is expressed in fractions of the base period, from the end of the qk-th base period to the date of the k-th payment. If the debt is paid strictly according to the repayment schedule, then the value will be zero. In this case, the formula has a simplified form.

m – the number of payments.

i – interest rate of the base period, expressed not in percent, but in decimal form.

### Calculation algorithm

As can be seen from the calculation formula above, loan rates are calculated simply, with the exception of the indicator called the interest rate of the base period. This is the most difficult indicator to calculate, not everyone can handle it. Calculating multi-year loans is physically unrealistic. To simplify the calculations, you can turn to online calculators or directly to the bank. In addition, if you believe that the rate given in the contract is not accurate, you can send a copy of the contract to the Central Bank with a request to calculate the correct value.

## Total cost of a consumer loan

Before concluding a consumer loan agreement, a bank employee is obliged to inform the borrower of the real value of the loan, which is often confused with the interest rate. Banks may impose payment for services, for example, Internet banking or SMS alerts, the fee for which is charged only with the permission of the borrower. The full price includes not only the amount of the overpayment formed in connection with the accrued interest, but also the payment of the following operations:

• consideration of the application;
• issuing a loan;
• issuing a bank card;
• cash withdrawal from cash desk;
• life insurance (optional).

## Price of a loan when buying a car

When buying a car on credit, you should know that four parties are involved in the transaction at once. Firstly, it is the buyer himself and the bank that credits the purchase, and secondly, the seller, which may be a car dealership or private person, and an insurance company. It should be said right away that car insurance according to the CASCO system is mandatory if the vehicle is transferred to the bank as collateral. Otherwise, the requirement to purchase an insurance policy is illegal.

The full cost of a loan for a car is calculated taking into account payments for the following items:

• interest charges;
• commission for transferring funds to the seller’s account;
• collateral insurance;
• additional costs of the borrower associated with notarization of documents.

## Mortgage Cost

Becoming the owner of your own meters has become easier with the advent of mortgages. Banks offer various lending options – with or without down payment, with state subsidies or the use of maternity capital – all this will affect the total cost of the loan. In addition to paying interest to the CPM on the purchase of real estate, you must add the following list of payments:

• collateral insurance (payments made by the borrower to insure the pledged property are included in the calculation of CPM in an amount proportional to the price of the property paid for by the loan, as well as the ratio of the loan period to the insurance period if the borrowing period is less than the insurance period);
• property valuation;
• notarization of a transaction;
• mortgage loan transfer fee and funds transfer to the account.

All payments to third parties (notarial, insurance and other companies) are made using the tariffs of these organizations. If the contract provides for a minimum monthly payment, the calculation of the total cost of a consumer loan is based on this condition.

## UCS calculation example

How to calculate the cost of a loan? The following is a conditional example for a consumer loan:

• principal loan amount – 340,000 rubles;
• loan term – 24 months;
• rate – 13% per annum;
• commission for granting a loan – 2.8% of the total amount;
• commission for issuing cash from the bank’s cash desk – 2.5%.

Below is a system with monthly even payments. The amount of interest accrued for the period will amount to 72,414 rubles (you can see it in the contract or payment schedule).

Then we calculate the amount of the commission for issuing a loan and cashing out funds:

340,000? 2.8% = 9520 rubles;

340,000? 2.5% = 8500 rubles.

After that, we summarize all the indicators and get:

340000 + 72414 + 9520 + 8500 = 430434 rubles.

### Online calculator

A large number of loan calculators are available on the network that will help you calculate the standard credit limit loans, microloans, and even overdrafts. However, you need to understand that due to the fact that each bank uses its own version of the calculation of the rate, the data may differ. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the date of issuance of the loan and its repayment, as well as ways to repay the amount of debt: annuity, differential or bullet.

## Maximum and weighted average total cost of consumer loans

The Central Bank quarterly calculates and publishes the average market value of CPM for various types of consumer loans. The main thing is that the maximum loan rate does not exceed the weighted average rate by more than a third. Below are the values ​​for the 3rd quarter of 2019, taken from official sources:

 Consumer loan categories The average market value of the total cost of consumer loans,% Limit values ​​of the total cost of consumer loans,% Consumer loans for the purchase of vehicles while pledging it motor vehicles with a range of 0–1000 km 15,415 20,553 motor vehicles with a mileage of more than 1000 km 22,277 29,703 Consumer loans with a borrowing limit (by the amount of the borrowing limit on the day the agreement is signed) up to 30000 r. 27,522 36,696 30000–100000 r. 29,229 39,412 100000-300000 r. 26,528 35,371 Over 300,000 p. 23,774 31,699 Target consumer loans that are issued by transferring credit to a trade and service company to pay for goods (services), if there is a corresponding agreement (POS loans) without collateral Up to a year up to 30000 r. 28,250 37,667 30000–100000 r. 24,149 32,199 Over 100,000 r. 21,503 28,671 More than a year: up to 30000 r. 24,374 32,499 30000–100000 r. 21,224 28,299 Over 100,000 r. 20,932 27,909 Unearmarked consumer loans, targeted consumer loans without collateral, consumer loans for refinancing debt (except POS loans) Up to a year up to 30000 r. 26,488 35,317 30000–100000 r. 19,387 25,849 100000-300000 r. 17,735 23,647 Over 300,000 p. 15,619 20,825 More than a year: up to 30000 r. 20,798 27,731 30000–100000 r. 20,746 27,661 100000-300000 r. 20,050 26,733 Over 300,000 p. 17,351 23,135

## What does the CPM analysis give to the borrower

For most people, to know CPM is to understand how much it will cost borrowed funds, because sometimes a loan, which provides only interest, will end up in the same amount as a loan with a lower interest rate, but with additional fees. This even occurs in the same bank, and was created in order to attract more customers. When receiving a loan agreement, where the CPM is indicated, or having independently calculated the indicator, you need to understand that certain nuances, such as, for example, early repayment of the main debt, cannot always be taken into account..

### How to reduce the cost of credit

Having received information about the full cost of the loan, sometimes there is no desire to borrow money. However, if you approach this issue wisely, you can reduce the number proposed by the bank. There are a variety of ways to do this:

• Early repayment of a loan. If you partially or fully pay off the debt outside the schedule, this will help reduce the credit burden in the form of unaccounted interest. However, you need to carefully read the contract for penalties, which, on the contrary, can make a loan expensive.
• Issuing money to a bank card. Many lenders offer cash loans, but do not advertise that a certain percentage will have to be paid for issuing them from the cash desk. You can ask if it is possible to transfer money to an existing card or account (it can be opened for free) and whether a commission will be charged for this. Most likely, this option will be cheaper.
• Carefully read the terms of the loan agreement. Sometimes bank managers do not do the right thing without announcing all additional contributions. In some cases, the agreement includes payments for SMS informing, voluntary life insurance, Internet banking and similar services. If you know that you do not need them – feel free to refuse, thereby saving money.
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