According to statistics, during a fire, people die due to the fact that they cannot get out. For example, because the front door caught fire. Or it is so hot that you cannot touch and open the lock. Or the door is deformed by the heat and is jammed. Experts note that fire doors are installed in order to localize fire in one room, preventing fire from penetrating into neighboring.
If we look at a fire door in section, the layers of which it consists are clearly visible. Of course, the design of each model has options, and there may be several layers. But any fire door must have an inner and outer layer. The main “internal” materials are heat insulators (so that the door does not catch fire longer), for example, fireproof stone wool is very popular as a heat insulator. Outside – metal, plastic, fire-resistant paint.
A special strip is placed along the edge of such a door in a groove (along the entire perimeter) – a foaming anti-smoke insert (such as hard plasticine), which is not noticeable if the door is closed. During a fire, this insert foams, sealing the cracks and protecting against the penetration of combustion products into other rooms. Unfortunately, not every company explains what the door filling consists of, referring to its know-how. But whatever the door may be, its fire-fighting qualities must be recorded in certificates. Quite often, a fire door is also soundproof. In it, the inner filler simultaneously has two properties – heat-insulating and sound-absorbing.
The fire door must maintain fire resistance for the time specified in the certificate. According to GOST it is 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 min. But in practice, the most fire-resistant doors can withstand no more than 2 hours. Fire resistance tests are carried out in special laboratories, in special furnaces, using special measuring instruments.
The fire door must be chosen so that if a fire breaks out in the room and it burns out completely, then the integrity of the door will not be violated. On average, a living room engulfed in flames burns out in 15-20 minutes. Offices may burn longer (due to equipment and synthetic finishes: walls, floors, ceilings, furniture). Hence the conclusion: the fire resistance of the door must necessarily be more than 30 minutes.
To prevent a metal (steel) fire door from deforming, it is impossible to allow significant heating of any part of it: the heated part expands and “leads” the entire structure. As a result, the door is jammed. By the way, during a fire, accompanied by explosions of flammable materials, an almost instantaneous rise in temperature occurs. Therefore, in warehouses where oil products, solvents and compounds based on gasoline, kerosene, acetone, etc. are stored, it is better to put a door in which the metal is insulated with another material..
A reputable manufacturer designs the model in such a way as to minimize the likelihood of deformation. But if this happens, then the fire door leaf should not deform in the directions of the “parts of the world” (up / north, down / south, left / west, right / east), but only inward or outward. That is, it is allowed that the door leaf “swells with a bubble” or bends inward, but does not “spread out” in the door frame so that it is impossible to open.
To minimize the heating of the door from the side where there is no fire (to minimize heat transfer), the internal parts of the metal door structure, connecting the front and rear parts, are supplemented with heat-insulating gaskets (heat insulators), or, as they are also called, heat bridges. The internal heat-insulating material of a fire door can be a mineral board based on basalt fibers. Moreover, the longer the basalt thread, the slower the destruction of the plate will occur under the influence of temperature.
In addition, to facilitate evacuation during a fire, when every second counts, an anti-panic fire door opening system has been invented. The essence of this system is that the door is closed from the outside and can only be opened with keys, and from the inside, all locks are opened with one press of the door handle. Sometimes such a handle in appearance resembles a rail, almost equal in width to the door leaf. It is attached to the door with movable brackets. In the event of a fire, a person simply rests against the door handle-rail, and the door immediately opens. This is very convenient when your hands are busy or when in a panic there is no way to tinker with locks. Such a device will help to quickly jump out of the room during a fire..
Conversely, some fire doors in the event of a fire are specially automatically tightly closed, thereby blocking the path of fire and smoke. But if you need to get out, then they are just as easy to open (without a key). When the temperature rises or when smoke appears on the door, a special sensor is triggered, giving a signal to the door mechanism, and the door closes tightly.
When purchasing a fire door, you must definitely ask for both a fire safety certificate and a certificate of conformity issued by an accredited body. For example, the All-Russian Research Institute of Fire Protection of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. Officially accredited by the Main Directorate of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.
The certificates must indicate the name of the door, its dimensions, fire resistance limit, manufacturer and compliance with SNiPu.
Almost all special doors with a swing structure are installed in the same way. But keep in mind: the installation of a fire door should be carried out by a company licensed for this type of work. The license for the installation of fire doors in buildings under construction and reconstructed is given by the Federal Licensing Center (in Moscow – Mosstroylicense).
And in conclusion, let’s dwell on the premises where the installation of fire doors is necessary: