- Defining the task
- Metal change houses
- Wooden change houses
- Brick and stone cabins
- Layout options for change houses with shower and toilet
- Foundation and sewerage
- Foundation device
- Sewerage device
- Stages of construction of a change house with a shower and toilet
- Foundation and installation of sewer pipes
- Frame, walls and roof of the change house
- Engineering systems
- Finishing facilities
You can build a change house with a toilet and shower in your country house with your own hands. You don’t need any special skills to do this. We will advise you on possible layouts, materials and options for placing plumbing equipment, we will give you recommendations, accompanied by drawings. We will also consider the issues of foundation and sewage.
Defining the task
Change houses with a toilet and a shower may be needed not only by workers at a construction site, but also serve as a temporary or permanent sanitary block in the country or in a village house “without amenities. Such outbuildings can be made independently from various materials and equipped with several types of sewerage.
Depending on the budget, site design and personal preferences, you can build a wooden, metal or brick change house with a shower and toilet.
Metal change houses
The metal structure can be built from a small, 10-foot sea container or made independently from corrugated board and profile steel.
The structure in the photo below is made of a profile pipe, painted with Kuzbass varnish, as a frame. The walls are sheathed with polymer-coated galvanized corrugated board, and the roof is made of polycarbonate. Such a sanitary block can not be installed on the foundation, it is enough just to raise it above the ground level by placing bricks.
Wooden change houses
Sanblocks made of wood can be just utilitarian, and perform a decorative function, decorating a personal plot, as, for example, in the photo below. The increased humidity of the room requires the processing of lumber from both moisture and fungus. Such a change house must be equipped with ventilation. Unlike metal, wooden structures must be immediately installed in a permanent place. It is difficult to carry them without damage.
Brick and stone cabins
Such buildings are made for many years, so their engineering systems must be very carefully thought out: electricity is supplied, ventilation, sewage are worked out, and with permanent residence in the house, thermal insulation of the premises is also performed. With such capital construction, as a rule, only a toilet and a shower are not limited to the device: a boiler is connected, a utility block is added, and sometimes a guest room.
Layout options for change houses with shower and toilet
We suggest you consider several possible layouts.
Change house with a total area of 6 m2 consists of a utility block (3 m2) and a small shower and toilet. All rooms have a door to the outside.
A compact corner arrangement of a change house with a small toilet room, a shower with a changing room and a sink installed on the outside of the building. Each part of the cabins has its own door. Hozblock is not provided.
In this version, the front door is one. Inside there is a toilet isolated from the rest of the area, and a washbasin is installed in the dressing room.
Here the block “toilet + shower + washbasin” repeats the second option, but an additional utility block is added. Thus, materials are saved per wall. Entrances to each room are separate.
Such a layout is a small room (living, utility room, summer kitchen), from which the door leads to a shared bathroom: shower, toilet, washbasin. The thickness of the outer walls is 200 mm. Total outdoor area – 11.34 m2, internal – 8.46 m2.
Another interesting solution is with a veranda, which can be open or glazed. Occupied area – 13.34 m2, internal area – 8.67 m2.
Foundation and sewerage
Change houses with a shower and toilet can have a different mass and, therefore, they can be mounted on a foundation or installed on a gravel bed, low brick posts. The sewage system is also different and largely depends on the type of toilet.
Not all buildings need a permanent foundation. If you need it, then depending on the load, type of soil and climatic conditions, you can build a strip, columnar or pile foundation. Most often, a strip foundation is used for massive brick buildings and a columnar foundation for light wooden buildings. If the toilet is built with a cesspool, its brick or reinforced concrete walls can also serve as the basis for the walls..
1. A cinder block is used as a support. 2. Columnar foundation. 3. The change house rests on the walls of a cesspool lined with bricks. 4. Monolithic slab foundation
Sewerage of the change house largely depends on the type of toilet. It can be a cesspool, a drainage system through rings, filters, a powder closet, a dry closet. The device of septic tanks is an expensive and complex task that deserves to become a separate topic itself. A cesspool can be located directly under the structure, but it is more hygienic to bring it out through pipes, providing drainage and access for pumping out with a sewage machine if necessary.
A dry closet and a powder closet (peat toilet) only need to drain the liquid fraction, therefore it can be combined with a drain from the shower. The water from the shower and washbasin can be drained into the ground through a dug-in perforated tank – a drainage well.
The simplest drainage well can be assembled from a group of old car tires
Stages of construction of a change house with a shower and toilet
As an example, consider the stages of building a square shed under a hipped roof, equipped with a powder closet toilet, a shower with a changing room and a small utility block. At the first stage, we find a place for a building in accordance with sanitary and hygienic standards and make a schematic drawing of the future structure. This will help to determine the dimensions and construction estimate.
1. Change house with shower and toilet. 2. Well. 3. Residential building. 4. Trees. 5. Fence
The change house with a toilet should be at least 12 m from the living quarters. In the case of a dry powder closet, the minimum distance is 5 meters. From a well, a well or a reservoir, the minimum distance to the toilet is 25 m, regardless of the type and design of the latter.
Foundation and installation of sewer pipes
The foundation for the change house is tape, although the use of a columnar foundation is also permissible. The entire fertile soil layer under the future structure (with an area of 4×4 m) must be removed, then ditches must be dug around the perimeter under the load-bearing walls and the formwork must be made above the soil level. In the formwork we lay a drain pipe from the future toilet (for the liquid fraction) and from the shower drain. The total foundation depth is 500 mm and the belt width is 300 mm. It takes about 1.5 m to fill3 mortar from crushed stone, sand and cement (5: 3: 1). Filling is carried out on a 15 cm “pillow” of gravel or sand-gravel mixture with tamping.
As a reinforcement, it is permissible to use a simple single-layer mesh made of rods with a diameter of 12 mm. Vertical rods are laid along the perimeter for dressing with walls. In this case, either one bar is distributed for each rack at a distance of 600 mm or only at the corners for the main frame. After tying the reinforcing frame, concrete is poured. It is important that it gains maximum strength, for which it must be covered with a film and protected from direct sunlight. Concrete will gain strength in 28 days.
After 2–7 days, the formwork can be removed, and the area under the shed can be covered with gravel and sand. Tamp. Then you can perform thermal insulation – lay the foam or EPS, cover with a mounting mesh and make a concrete screed.
Frame, walls and roof of the change house
The frame and walls of the shed are wooden. Construction is carried out according to the rules for the construction of frame houses mounted on a concrete base with fastening reinforcement. The frame is made of 100×50 mm timber with edged board sheathing. The floor in the toilet and utility block is a planed board, in the shower – tiles. The height of the racks in the corners and at the locations of windows and doors is 2.4 m.After the walls, a four-pitched roof rafter system is erected, sheathed with an edged board and covered with a suitable roofing material, for example, flexible tiles.
Walls can be sheathed with clapboard, drywall or OSB boards for outdoor use. Do not forget about the ventilation equipment from the toilet and shower room. Walls can also be made with ventilation ducts, if crate is stuffed onto slabs or drywall and covered with facade material, for example, vinyl siding.
Next, you need to hang doors and windows, which you can also do yourself.
Under the ground, in a corrugated tube, an electric cable is laid to the electrical cabinet (16–25 A, 220 V). Wiring is routed to consumers, sockets and switches. A hood for a peat toilet is being installed. The powder closet is connected to the liquid waste outlet tube. Plumbing is installed from PP pipes. If the site has a water supply system with a pressure of more than 0.5 atm, you can install a storage water heater. If there is no running water, you will have to raise the water tank above the shower level. In this case, it is recommended to make the roof pitched and mount the tank on it. Plumbing equipment is installed in the shower.
Finishing includes the installation of ceilings, internal partitions and surface treatment with finishing materials – boards, PVC panels, tiles. If desired, the walls and ceiling can be insulated to use the shower in cool weather, but you will also have to think about heating the room, for example, with a portable electric heater. For an unheated change house, two layers of wind protection are enough, worked out under the outer and inner lining.