- Light class (2.5-5 HP)
- Features of the device
- Middle class (3.5-7.5 HP)
- Features of the device
- Power take-off
- Attachments (NO)
- Axial attachments
- Heavy class (8-13 hp)
- Features of the device
- Prospects for TM
How to combine several mechanisms in one? How to meet the needs of a small farm or a personal plot with one machine? How to save a novice farmer on labor mechanization without compromising the harvest? We will cover these and other questions in our article..
An economical owner always strives to combine functions, acquire equipment, or adapt the existing one to work in several areas at once. And here the leader in functionality is the walk-behind tractor.
Note.The article discusses the main technical solutions for the layout, functionality and device of walk-behind tractors. Please note that there are no regulatory documents for these products (such as GOST, TU, SDA, Technical passport), which leaves the manufacturer the right to vary the design at his discretion.
A motoblock is an engine mounted on a wheelset with a system (nodes) of power distribution on the axle and on the drive. It is controlled by rods brought out to the operator, on which control elements are located – traction, handles with cables, toggle switches. It is used in agriculture and municipal services. Has the widest range of working operations thanks to the range of attachments. Performs all work related to land cultivation – cleaning, digging, snow disposal, as well as all kinds of communal and agricultural tasks. A walk-behind tractor designed only for cultivating the land is called a motor cultivator.
Question.What is the difference between a walk-behind tractor and a cultivator?
Answer.The tiller has no power distribution – all the power from the engine is transmitted to the axle. Working bodies (tools) are arranged directly on it, and useful work is done while moving along the capture. While driving, the walk-behind tractor can activate attachments with movable elements: trimmer, pump, snow blower, etc..
Like all mechanisms that have a power unit, walk-behind tractors differ in power. This directly affects the size, arsenal of useful functions and weight of the entire structure. There are three classes of engine power:
Light class (2.5-5 HP)
Conditional category, since it includes only motor-cultivators, including electric-driven.
Features of the device
Direct drive from the crankshaft to the axle through a gear or chain gear. This ensures maximum take-off of engine power, which, with a low weight of the entire machine, shows maximum efficiency. At the same time, due to the absence of intermediate units, shock loads during operation are transferred to the engine – this wears it out more and shortens its service life.
- Light weight (from 15 kg).
- Foldable portable design.
- Low fuel consumption.
- Low price.
- Low power.
- Limited service life.
- Narrow scope.
- Unreliability (an abundance of plastic parts).
Scope – periodic soil cultivation to a depth of no more than 10 cm on a plot of up to 6 acres. There are a large number of models of motor cultivators, including powerful ones (up to 10 hp) with extended functionality, but in the end it all comes down to the cultivation of fertile soil and transportation of goods (if there is a trailer).
Models of motoblocks cultivators 1.5-3.5 liters. from.:
Model Engine Width, cm Weight, kg Price, rub. Zirka JY-300, China Electric drive, 300 W nineteen 4.8 2000 Electric hoe Texas ES300, Denmark-China Electric drive, 400 W 15 6.4 3000 Texas El Tex 750, Denmark-China Electric drive, 750 W 28 8.1 4000 REIN TIG 4038, Russia-China Loncin LC170, 170cc, 4 HP from. 40 38 10,000 Stiga SRC 36 G 211360042-13, Sweden-Italy Stiga RSCT 100, 100cc, 2.5 l. from. 36 27 13,000 MasterYard MV 87 L, China-France MasterYard OHV87, 87cc, 2.7 l. from. 36 20 15,000 Partner PFT44-154 9666696-01, USA Briggs&Stratton 500 Series OHV, 158cc, 1.9 HP from. 44 thirty 15500 MTD T / 205 21A-20MI678, Germany MTD ThorX 45 OHV, 139cc, 3.5 L from. 25 34 16500 Echo TC-210, Japan Kioritz (2T), 21.2cc, 1 HP from. 21 9.5 17,000 Grillo G Z1 Italy Briggs&Stratton 575EX Series OHV, 250cc, 3 HP from. 55 35 17,500 Earthquake 26750, USA-China Viper 14318, 100cc, 3 HP from. 53 41 20,700 Caiman MB 33S Supertiller, France-Japan Subaru-Robin EH 035 V OHV, 33.5cc, 1.6 l. from. 26 12 23,000 Pubert Compact 40B C, France-USA Briggs&Stratton 475 Series 148cc 3.5 HP from. 60 46 20,000 Caiman Turbo 1000 Battery 1000 W, 36 V, 12 A 24 32 33000
Middle class (3.5-7.5 HP)
The most numerous class. The utility, reliability and maintainability of the “middle peasants” provide high demand and a variety of products. Popularity is provided by a large number of small and medium-sized private farms that need constant mechanization of labor.
Features of the device
Models from different manufacturers have many design variations. The presence of a separate power take-off is mandatory, which also differs in design. The main difference between the chassis and the light class is the presence of a belt drive to the gearbox. The reducer can also be of different designs – worm, gear or chain. The middle class has a more advanced gearbox, sometimes even a variator.
KADVI UGRA NMB-1N12
Motoblocks are supplied with standard universal units, which are used in all types of mobile autonomous equipment – vibratory rammers, motor pumps, generators and even motorcycles. The power unit is simply supplied with the necessary transmission units. The traditional division by fuel is gasoline and diesel. Gasoline engines have low weight, high performance and low (moderate) price. “Diesels” are heavier, more expensive, but much more reliable and unpretentious than gasoline ones, therefore they are installed more often on “pro” models.
In “semi-professional” models, it is presented in the form of an additional stream (seat of the belt) on the wheel of the main shaft. In this case, each attachment (HO) requiring activation is supplied with an additional belt tensioner (swing wheel handle). This design is less reliable, but it simplifies and speeds up repairs to the limit – changing the belt, wheels, tightening can be done even in the field.
“Profi” models have a reliable power take-off shaft to which the NO drives are supplied. The shaft is more reliable (relative to the belt), but in case of breakage or wear it requires professional repair in a workshop. More often such a shaft can be found on diesel models..
Most (85%) motoblocks of the middle class are equipped with a gear transmission, which has 3-4 forward gears and 1-2 reverse gears. The difference between gearboxes comes down, as a rule, to weight and reliability..
At the dawn of mass production, when each manufacturer tried to occupy its own part of the market, only native parts and assemblies were required to service equipment (even tools). This turned an expensive advanced tractor in the event of a breakdown into a pile of iron, costing a three-year harvest. The inability to quickly replace and the lack of available elements slowed down the work.
GREEN-FIELD KDT 610L
The mechanized BUT was created specifically for motoblocks and today it has become utilitarian. This means that 80% BUT is interchangeable and fits almost every model in its class. The following actuator-type drive devices can be connected to a standard walk-behind tractor:
- Snow thrower (auger).
- Seeders, winders.
- Pump (pump).
- Brush (drum).
- Rotary mower.
The combined NO deserves special attention. These are multi-stage devices that solve several tasks in one pass, for example, leveling, aerating, sowing seeds and sprinkling them with earth. To work with them, only devices equipped with a swivel bar (with the ability to find the operator on the side) are suitable.
Along with the activator, HO is used, which can be conditionally called static. This is a plow, blade, diggers, tillers. They are steel teeth and plates, bent in a special way to perform specific operations, rigidly fixed to the frame console.
Models from 7.5 liters. from. mainly have wheels as a permanent drive, while all the work is performed by an activator NO. In less powerful models, it is possible to install working bodies on the drive axles – a milling cutter, a ripper, aerator. To increase the cross-country ability, metal wheels (often homemade) with lugs are installed.
Motoblocks from 2.5 liters. from. have a console that allows you to attach a trailer or cart. This turns the two-wheeled semi-tractor into a complete vehicle. Their size (maximum load) depends on the power of the power unit. Types of trailers are represented by a wide range of factory products. But more often they are adapted on their own, remaking them from automobiles, or they create a structure from scrap materials. Loading “middle peasant” – up to 200 kg (together with the operator).
Models of motoblocks of the middle class 3.5–7.5 liters. from.:
Model Engine Checkpoint Selection Price, rub. Petrol WEIMA WM1050, China-Germany Loncin WM168FB, 168cc, 6.5 L. from. 2/1 shaft 20500 “DOBRYNYA 7.0”, China-Russia SunGarden OHV, 200cc, 7 HP from. 3/1 pulley 19500 SALUT-100, China-Russia LIFAN 168F-2B, 196cc, 5.5 l. from. 4/2 pulley 20500 PATRIOT GARDEN ONTARIO PRO, China-USA Patriot Garden OHV Т7,0 / 1150 2FB PG 200cc, 7 HP from. 2/1 pulley 21500 AGROSTAR AS 1050 С, China-China AgroMotor (Lifan) 170 F, 170cc, 7 HP from. 2/1 shaft 22000 “SALUT 5L”, Russia-China Lifan OHV, 196cc, 6.5 l. from. 4/2 pulley 22000 “FAVORIT MB ZID”, China-Russia Lifan 170F, 170cc, 6.5 l. from. 2/1 pulley 24500 SALUT 5 P6, China-Japan-Russia Subaru-Robin EX17, 170cc, 6 HP from. 2/1 pulley 27000 KIPOR KGT510C, China (prom) Kipor GK205, 200cc, 7 HP from. 3/1 pulley 30,000 KADVI UGRA NMB-1N12, China-Russia AgroMotor (Lifan) 170 F, 10cc, 7 HP from. 3/1 shaft 31000 Diesel “KADVI MB-1D”, Russia DM 1, 200ss, 6 liters. from. 2/2 shaft 32500 Ruslan, China-Russia AgroMotor (Lifan) 178FG, 180cc, 7 HP from. 3/1 shaft 33500 FAVORIT MB ZiD 173F Zid 173F (Lifan), 300cc, 6 hp. from. 4/2 shaft 33500 PATRIOT GARDEN MONTANA DIESEL, China-USA Partiot Garden Diesel T 7.6 / 900 2FB PG, 300cc, 6 HP from. 2/2 shaft 40,000 GREEN-FIELD KDT 610L, China Lifan LT 178 F, 290cc, 6 HP from. 4/2 shaft 42000 KIPOR KDT610L, China Kipor KM 178 FS, 310cc, 5.5 l. from. 4/2 shaft 43000
Heavy class (8-13 hp)
Heavy walk-behind tractor (TM) is the front part of a mini-tractor with the prospect of periodically transforming into a full-fledged four-wheeled vehicle. The best helper for a large tractor, but it can handle a 3-hectare plot alone. Ready to work all year round.
Features of the device
Large walk-behind tractors repeat the set of functions of the middle class, but have greater productivity due to their greater power and weight. They have a wider lane capture, and a deeper track, and on virgin soil you can not worry “will it take it or not?”.
All the equipment of the “middle peasants” migrated to their heavy counterparts with virtually no structural changes. They have large wheels (10–25 inches), sometimes larger than those of mini tractors. There is always a headlight in the front. Due to the large mass of “heavyweights” they are supplied with separate brakes – for each wheel. This increases the maneuverability of the machine during operation..
There are no amateur models in this class – all devices are powerful, heavy and expensive. Another difference from the others is full maintainability. Everything in the TM can be removed, sorted out, prevented and reinstalled. Mostly, universal standard fasteners are used (no shrink fit, plastic soldering and riveting), which can be replaced in case of breakage or loss. Most of even the smallest parts are available in spare parts stores and often fit models from different companies. There is always room for a toolbox outside or inside the machine.
About 90% of heavy motoblocks engaged in agricultural work are powered by diesel power units from 8 to 12 liters. from. Their large motor resource, simplicity and readiness for continuous work have long been appreciated by farmers and made their choice. In addition, a fair weight in this case is a big plus. This has a positive effect on the quality of earthworks. The wheels of gasoline models have to be heavier.
Centaur 1080 D
Powerful gasoline models occupy a worthy place in more “intelligent” works – servicing country hotel complexes, flower and wig farms. They are thermophilic and often demanding on fuel quality..
The number of gears is 2–5 forward and 1–3 backward. Differential lock.
Prospects for TM
Up to half of all TMs sooner or later receive a second pair of wheels and become mini tractors. This possibility is incorporated into the design of even the middle class in the form of a console for a trailer. In most cases, the alteration is associated with the creation of a reliable welded frame, the transfer of controls to the operator’s seat, the addition of various rationalization “know-how”. These implementations are not provided by the plant, so everything is done under the responsibility of the owner.
Another area of TM is the use in a stationary position (without wheels). So, at the end of seasonal work in farms, the walk-behind tractor can be adapted for:
- Wood shredder, shredder, crusher, mill.
- Emergency or main generator.
- Well or borehole pump.
- Woodworking Machine.
- Vibrator (vibration table) and much more.
With a certain skill (which, of course, an experienced farmer has), everything that needs activation is adjusted to the PTO shaft.
Heavy motoblocks 8-12 liters. from.:
Model Engine Checkpoint Price, rub. Diesel “Centaur 1080 D”, China Zirka R 180 AN, 400cc, 9 HP from. 3/1 35000 “Centaur MB1012E-3”, China Zirka R 220 AN, 550cc, 12 HP from. 4/2 42000 WEIMA WM1100B, China-USA Loncin WM186FB, 230cc, 9 HP from. 2/1 44000 PATRIOT GARDEN T DETROIT Partiot Garden Diesel9.5 / 1350 2FB DE 200cc, 9.5 HP from. 2/1 50500 KIPOR KDT910E, China Kipor KM186FSЕ (Yanmar type), 200cc, 8.6 liters. from. 2/1 54000 “BELARUS 07BS”, USA-Russia B&S Intek I / C, 250cc, 10 HP from. 4/2 66500 Texas Pro Trac 900 DE, China-Denmark TG Power Line TD900E, 400cc, 9 HP from. 4/3 100,000 Petrol CAIMAN 340, France-Japan Subaru EX 40, 400cc, 13 HP from. 4/3 140,000 Grillo G107D, Italy Lombardini 15LD / 400, 400cc, 10 HP from. 4/3 185000 Grillo G131AE, Italy Lombardini 3LD / 510, 510cc, 13 HP from. 5/2 305000
What to look for when choosing a walk-behind tractor? In view of the huge offer, we will give some recommendations for choosing:
- Metal thickness and fastening of parts. The metal must be strong, the thicker the better. The assemblies are fastened to bolts with an internal hexagon or slot.
- Visual reliability of the entire machine. Imagine her at work in the field after the rain. Will the levers rotate, the rods, buttons, cables.
- Weight distribution. Ask for the DO you intend to work with most of the time. Estimate the weight balance on the axle.
- Electric starter. Powerful diesel engines of domestic brands have a manual starter – this is the business of real men. But in the season, there is no need to waste energy.
- Swivel bar. It will allow you to expand the choice of attachments to a full range.
- Dismountable gearbox. The most loaded walk-behind tractor unit. Made of cast iron or steel. In the event of a breakdown, 1-2 parts are replaced, and not the entire gearbox, as in non-separable ones. By reliability in ascending order: worm, chain and gear.
- Engine manufacturer. The principle of choice (as is the case with other products) – the quality depends on the country of the manufacturer.
- Clutch control handle. The principle “works when pressed down” is convenient for small vehicles, small areas and where maneuverability and frequent adjustments are needed. On large areas, the hand will get tired of holding it.
- Service and spare parts. Purchase from authorized centers whenever possible. Get maximum information from the seller.
It is impossible to fit all the nuances into one article. Progress blurs the lines between classes and makes farming easier and faster. Something new appears every day. However, the basic knowledge gained from this article will allow you to navigate the small equipment market..