Benefit and harm of butter – composition according to GOST and calorie content, types and best grades

The content of the article

Now it is believed that animal fats are absolutely harmful, they must be discarded and eat only vegetable. Opponents of this position prove the groundlessness of these allegations. Let’s try to figure out what quality peasant or Vologda butter should be to meet the requirements of GOST.

What is butter

The product is made from milk from cattle and small cattle. In Russia, it is produced by the method of separation or churning of natural cow pasteurized fresh cream. Due to the high fat content, the product is not consumed on its own. It is used for making sandwiches, added to cereals, mashed potatoes, dough, it improves the taste of food. From raw materials – fat cream – the product has a high fat content: from 50 to 99%.


In addition to fat, the milk product consists of milk proteins, carbohydrates, water. The composition of butter includes cholesterol, lecithin, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids:

  • oleic;
  • palmitic;
  • myristic;
  • linoleic;
  • lauric;
  • oil;
  • kapron;
  • capric;
  • caprylic.

The product contains vitamins: A (retinol), C (ascorbic acid), E (tocopherol), PP (niacin), group B (thiamine, riboflavin, folic acid), carotene, calciferols, and also minerals:

  • selenium;
  • magnesium;
  • potassium;
  • calcium;
  • iron;
  • sodium;
  • phosphorus;
  • manganese;
  • zinc;
  • copper.

Butter on a wooden board


Requirements for the manufacture of the product contains GOST 32261-2013. Such numbers, and not others, should be indicated on the packaging of the quality product. The standard allows the content of preservatives, food coloring carotene, acidity regulators. The inclusion of vegetable fats in the product composition: palm, coconut and other GOST is prohibited. For production as a raw material, the manufacturer can use:

  • cow’s milk;
  • cream;
  • buttermilk;
  • table salt.

Calorie content

The milk product is high-energy due to the high fat content – from 50 to 99 percent. Due to the low melting point – 32 degrees – fat is easily absorbed by the body. Calorie content of 100 grams of product is:

  • 552 kcal – for 60% fat content;
  • 610 kcal – for 67%;
  • 626 kcal – for 72.5%;
  • 748 kcal – for 82.8%;
  • 892 kcal – for 99%.


According to the standard, the product should be made from pasteurized cream with or without sourdough, therefore, there are different types:

  • sweet cream;
  • sour cream.

Within these groups, the production of cow fat can be carried out with or without salt, so there are types:

  • salted;
  • unsalted.

The product is distinguished by fat content, the following fat content of butter is offered to the consumer:

  • Tea – 50% of the mass fraction;
  • Sandwich – 61%;
  • Peasant – 72.5%;
  • Amateur – 80%;
  • Vologda – 82.5%;
  • Traditional – 82.5%.

Butter and bread

The best varieties

The requirements for Tea and Sandwich oils are not stipulated by the standard conditions, because of the low fat content they cannot be considered a high-quality animal product. These may include harmful plant and hydrogenated impurities. Melted cow fat is obtained after evaporation of moisture by thermal processing, so it almost does not contain useful bioactive substances and trace elements, but has harmful carcinogenic free radicals.

Peasant oil with a fat content of 72.5% has good qualities. It is characterized by a special sour cream flavor, because it is made according to a technology different from other types – from unpasteurized cream. With a fat content of 80-82.5% (Amateur, Traditional brands), the manufacturer does not need to use emulsifiers to achieve a uniform consistency.

It is necessary to highlight the Vologda oil. It is produced according to a special recipe, according to special specifications by three manufacturers: the plant named after Vereshchagin, CJSC “Vologda Dairy Plant”, OJSC “Sheksninsky Dairy”. Produced from the milk of cows fed on grass, it is characterized by a special sweet creamy smell with a nutty flavor. Among domestic brands, the quality rating of butter can be arranged in the following order:

  • Vologda fat content 82.5%;
  • Traditional and amateur fat content of 80-82.5%;
  • Peasant.

Useful properties of butter

Cow solid fat is indispensable for the human body due to the chemical composition:

  1. Selenium has anti-carcinogenic properties.
  2. Cholesterol does not contribute to the appearance of atherosclerosis and heart disease due to the presence of oleic acid and lecithin, which regulate lipid metabolism and prevent the accumulation of plaques.
  3. Oleic acid has anti-cancer properties.
  4. Cholesterol contributes to the production of bile acids necessary for the digestion process, the milk product is included in the diet for cholecystitis.
  5. Vitamin A inhibits the secretion of gastric juice, this component is recommended by dietetic medicine for the healing of stomach and intestinal ulcers.
  6. Vitamins A and E are good for eyesight..
  7. Vitamin C boosts immunity.
  8. Lauric acid has antimicrobial and antifungal properties, therefore, it is recommended to use the milk product for medicinal purposes for colds and tuberculosis.

For the female body

The benefit of butter for a woman’s body is provided by the content of the following substances:

  1. Cholesterol. The presence of this component contributes to maintaining the necessary level of balance of female hormones, and a lack leads to the disappearance of menstruation and infertility.
  2. Folic acid, lecithin. Contribute to improving the condition of the skin, hair, nails.
  3. Lipids. The fats accumulated in the cells help protect the skin from wind and frost, provide healthy skin.
  4. Calcium Actual for pregnant and lactation.

For men

A food product is needed to quickly replenish energy. Animal fat can be easily absorbed by the body and help restore strength after heavy physical exertion. It is a valuable source of cholesterol, which is necessary for men to produce full-fledged sperm. Lack of substance can lead to a decrease or loss of reproductive function.

Butter in a plate

For children

Of great importance in childhood is the replenishment of calcium by the body. The product has a valuable property – the fat-soluble tocopherols contained in it provide complete assimilation of this element from milk fat. A special role in the development of the child is given to cholesterol: it is necessary for the renewal of nerve tissues and the normal functioning of the children’s brain. Exclusion of cow fat from the diet entails a lack of nutrients, cholesterol, which can cause:

  • decreased attention span;
  • poor assimilation of material;
  • mental decline.

How much butter can I eat per day?

Since the product contains a large percentage of fats and has a high calorie content, it is necessary to observe the norms of its consumption. Children are recommended to eat no more than 7 grams daily. Adult consumption can be increased to 30 grams. You should not give up cow fat in diseases of the liver and pancreas, but only reduce consumption to 20 grams.

Harm to butter

Currently, the benefits and harms of butter is the topic of discussion. With proper nutrition, moderate consumption of fatty varieties of the product, cow fat cannot be harmful. The following should be considered:

  1. Do not use the product for frying and baking and use ghee, because carcinogens form during heat treatment.
  2. Cow fat contains a small amount of protein, so allergic reactions are possible. Such cases are less common than with milk..
  3. Excessive use of cow fat can lead to overweight, obesity.

How to choose butter

Which butter is better to buy so as not to harm your health? The first information can be obtained from the packaging:

  1. The presence of vegetable fats in an animal product is harmful to the human body.
  2. The big implementation term – over 30 days – indicates the presence of a preservative.
  3. For the consumer, the best packaging is a metallized film – it prevents the destruction of vitamins.

Signs of Good Butter

Checking the butter for quality is carried out in accordance with GOST. The standard prohibits the implementation of a product:

  • with extraneous taste and smell (rancid, greasy, musty, musty, chemicals);
  • heterogeneous, crumbling, sticky, loose consistency;
  • heterogeneous color.

For a vacation to the consumer, the product must meet the requirements for organoleptic characteristics (taste, smell, texture, color) and labeling. There is a rating scale, according to which a score is set for each of the indicators. After summing them, determine the grade of oil:

  • top grade – 17-20 points;
  • first grade – 11-16 points.

If the rating is below 11 points, the goods are not allowed for sale. When buying a dairy product, you must remember the following:

  1. It is necessary to try its consistency – if a product is pressed when you click on a package, you cannot buy it, because this is the result of adding vegetable fats.
  2. After the refrigerator, high-quality cow fat should be hard, cut into a piece and not crumble..
  3. It’s not a piece of cow fat that has a natural creamy smell, but a product that melts in your mouth.
  4. Color should not be bright yellow – this is a sign of the presence of dye.
  5. Long shelf life indicates the use of preservatives by the manufacturer.
  6. A quality product should melt in your mouth, not stick to your teeth, dissolve evenly in warm water.

Pieces of butter

Substandard oil

To produce a kilogram of a product, 20 to 30 kilograms of milk is needed, so the low price of the product indicates the presence of ingredients that are not of animal origin. You can identify low-quality goods by:

  • the presence of a pronounced smell – they possess falsifications containing flavorings;
  • bright yellow color;
  • soft, friable, heterogeneous with interspersed consistency (indicates the presence of milk fat substitutes);
  • particle separation in warm water rather than dissolving.
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