The content of the article
- Features of the choice of tomato varieties for greenhouses
- Determinant varieties of tomatoes for the greenhouse
- Disease resistant tomatoes
- Large fruited
- Varieties of black tomatoes
- New varieties
Tomatoes are a thermophilic plant, therefore it is more practical to grow it in a greenhouse than in an open area, especially in the northern regions of the country. The key to a good harvest is not only in the right climate, but also in the selection of suitable varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses, of which there are many. In a closed microclimate – heat, humidity, poor ventilation, the likelihood of developing plant diseases is high. Properly selected varieties can cope with this problem, give the gardener a rich harvest of vegetables.
Features of the choice of tomato varieties for greenhouses
There are some criteria that should be considered when choosing the best varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses to obtain a rich harvest:
- The expected yield. On average, from one sq.m. greenhouses can collect 10-15 kg of tomato, but if you give preference to special high-yielding hybrids, this figure can reach more than 20 kg with 1 sq.m.
- Type of bush. The tall are considered to be the best, which are distinguished by a long fruiting period, a richer harvest. Undersized ripen earlier.
- The size of the tomatoes. Large-fruited are planted for consumption in salads, or for the preparation of juice. Medium-sized vegetables and decorative cherry tomatoes are suitable for conservation in general.
- Ripening speed. If you need to get 2 crops per season, then preference should be given to early ripe tomatoes.
- Disease resistance. In the greenhouse, a favorable microclimate is created for the development of diseases that are difficult to deal with, therefore it is recommended to choose hybrids “with immunity” for this type of growing vegetables.
- Shelf life and transportability. When growing vegetables for sale, this criterion plays a big role.
Determinant varieties of tomatoes for the greenhouse
For the rational use of the greenhouse area when growing tomatoes, it is recommended to combine undersized and tall, i.e. determinant and indeterminate varieties. The former are distinguished by the fact that they contain a genetic arrest of growth upon reaching the necessary limits. Determinant hybrids do not differ in rich harvest and growth height, so they are recommended to be grown in low greenhouses and greenhouses, or along the lowered edge of the structure. Such varieties have merit – these are early ripening, but with a limited fruiting period.
Popular determinant varieties of tomato:
- The bourgeois is early ripe, from the moment of germination to the first fruits 107-112 days pass. Plant height 75-110 cm, medium tomatoes, weighing up to 220 g. Vegetables are suitable for preservation in the form of juice or whole. Among the shortcomings are fragile branches, which must be tied up. Productivity 5-11 kg per meter cubic. The hybrid is resistant to temperature changes, diseases, drought, the vegetable tolerates transportation well, is stored for a long time.
- Openwork F1 – a hybrid that can be grown in a closed and open area, ripening time of 97-105 days, height – up to a meter. Advantages – high yield, disease resistance. From tomato, you can produce juice and tomato paste, eat fresh. C sqm You can get up to 13 kg of vegetables. It is recommended to timely apply mineral and organic fertilizers.
- Olya F1 is one of the best cultivars for sale. In greenhouse conditions it can grow year-round. Resistant to cold and greenhouse diseases, precocious, high yielding. Tomatoes weighing 120-130 g, the same size, are used fresh and canned. Productivity is up to 25 kg with sq.m.
- The doll is a hybrid, one of the ten best for growing indoors. Plant height 65-75 cm, fruit weight up to 420 g. The bush must be tied up. Productivity 10 kg per sq.m. The doll has a long shelf life and transportability. Sweet, fleshy tomato pulp.
These tomatoes are tall, plant growth ends at the same time as fruiting ends. By this time, the bush reaches 2 m in height, and some grow up to 3-4 m. A feature of indeterminate varieties is the ability of one plant to tie up to 45 brushes with tomatoes. The plant during the growing season has a new ovary, which allows regular harvesting. Greenhouse conditions prolong the fruiting period.
Indeterminate varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses recommended for indoor cultivation:
- Octopus F1 – fruit ripeness occurs in 95-110 days. The plant has a thick, strong stalk, so it holds a large number of ovaries without tying and backups. 120 g vegetables have a firm but tasty flesh.
- Tretyakovsky F1 – a hybrid stably brings a crop in low light, temperature extremes. Productivity is up to 16 kg with sq.m. Vegetables ripen in 90-105 days, fruits weighing 125 g, suitable for fresh consumption and preservation.
- Major – tomato is spread due to the sweetness of the tomato. The pulp is dense, with a tight skin that does not crack during storage and transportation. Resistant to temperature changes.
- Happiness is a mid-season high-yielding tomato variety, which is characterized by intensive growth. Fruits weighing 250-300 g, sweet, fleshy. The plant grows up to 2 m, requires formation. The hybrid is resistant to disease, but requires balanced feeding and watering..
Disease resistant tomatoes
Pathogens of plants are pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, especially if they enter the greenhouse. Healthy strong plants are not always exposed to pathological microorganisms. Unfavorable microclimate conditions – temperature differences, violation of the watering regime, insufficient ventilation, shade, thickened plantings – weaken the immunity of plants, as a result – the development of various diseases.
Breeders are constantly working on the cultivation of tomatoes that have immunity to such diseases, among them the most delicious should be distinguished:
- Charisma F1 is a high-yielding mid-season hybrid for indoor use, which is resistant to the most common diseases (mosaic, fusarium, cladosporiasis) and low temperatures. Tomato weight up to 200 g, with 1 sq.m. You can collect more than 9 kg of fruit.
- Ural F1 is a mid-season hybrid that is grown with a single trunk. Vegetable weighing 300 g, red. From one bush you can collect 9 kg of tomatoes.
- Blitz is an early variety, the first ovary ripens in 70-85 days. Bushes are low, can be grown not only indoors. Tomatoes weighing about 100 g, the same size.
- Tatyana is a tall variety (up to 3 meters). Fruits ripen in 110 days. Large tomatoes up to 450 g.
- De Barao is the most productive and disease-resistant variety that bears fruit until the first frost. Tomatoes are red, the same size, weighing up to 250 g. The bush is tall, requires tying.
Such tomatoes are considered to be those that are from one sq.m. yield more than 12 kg. The best hybrids:
- Semko-Sinbad F1 – bears fruit 3 months after the appearance of the first seedlings. Fruits are round, regular shape and bright red color, weighing no more than 110 g.
- Pink pearl – undersized and large-fruited hybrid, tomatoes of mother-of-pearl pink color, regular round shape, weighing 70-75 g.
- Pink raisins are a fruitful early ripe hybrid that grows up to 2 meters. The brush is characterized by a complex multi-fertile structure with beautiful, smooth, elongated tomatoes. Fruits of pink color, used for salads and snacks.
- Banana legs are a productive undersized variety, with unusual yellow elongated fruits with a pointed end. Recommended for salting.
- Honey drop – a mid-early hybrid that does not require special care – enough timely watering, top dressing and loosening.
- Auria is a hybrid with unusual tasty fruits, universal use. Bushes grow up to 2 meters, fruit weight – 200g.
The early ripening of a tomato is an important criterion in choosing a variety, especially for the northern regions, which are recognized as a zone of risky farming. For this reason, breeders are constantly working on the creation of early and ultra-early hybrids, with a maturity of less than 95 days after the first germination. Among these varieties, it is worth highlighting:
- Golden brush – an early tomato for closed soil. A plant up to 1.5 m high, requires tying up and cutting the bush. Small fruits 27-33 g, plum-shaped, yellow and sweet taste, universal use.
- Mandarin duck is an early variety for greenhouses and greenhouses. The bush is strong, but requires garter and circumcision of the stepsons. Fruits up to 100 g, orange. Hybrid able to form fruits under adverse conditions.
- Verlioka F1 – the hybrid grows up to 2 m, the fruits ripen in the period up to 100 days. Bushes form and tie up. Fruits weighing 100 g, universal use.
- Friend F1 – tomato grows up to 75 cm, the ripening period is up to 100 days. Ribbed fruits, weighing up to 100 g. Resistant to disease and cold.
- Hurricane F1 is a hybrid for indoor use. The fruit ripening period is 90 days. The bush grows to 15 m, it is necessary to tie and stepchild. Productivity 9 kg per sq.m. Preserves taste during transportation and long-term storage.
Self-pollinated plants do not need pollinating insects, as one flower contains male and female organs, which simplifies the process when grown indoors. Of these varieties can be distinguished:
- Sanka – fruit ripening begins 3 months after seed germination. The fruiting period continues until the first frosts. Small size and good taste allow using it both in preservation and in fresh form.
- Mikado Black – an unusual indeterminate hybrid, grows up to 1 m. Sweet tomatoes weighing 250 g, brown.
- Southern tan – a tall mid-season tomato grows up to 2 m. The fruits are characterized by a bright orange color with a mass of 250-300 g.
- Caspar is a Dutch early ripe hybrid, the ripening period of 80-90 days, bears fruit until the fall. Resistant to diseases and pests. The weight of the fruit is 75-110 g, pepper-shaped, fiery red. Productivity 10 kg per 1 sq. M..
- Midas is a mid-early tomato that grows up to 2 m. The fruits are pepper-shaped, orange-yellow color, weighing 100 g.
Such tomatoes are characterized by tasty, fleshy, weighty fruits, which are ideal for making fruit drinks, juice and pasta. Among these varieties, the most popular:
- Abakan pink – an early hybrid, fruit weight about 350 g. The bush brings a rich harvest of pink sweet tomatoes.
- Bull’s heart is a popular variety of pink tomatoes of oblong-oval shape, with weighty tasty, juicy fruits up to 0.75 kg.
- Two-color – a hybrid of red color with manifestations of yellow blotches, fruits weighing up to 500 g and sugar flavor.
- Cowhide heart – brings tomatoes weighing up to 600 g, good for making salads.
- Pink elephant – the fruits are characterized by ribbing, weighing 350-400 g. Sugar droplets appear on the notch.
- Orange miracle – a hybrid of Siberian breeding, early ripening. Suitable for growing on any soil.
Decorative small-fruited cherry tomatoes are used in cooking for the preparation of snacks and salads, in canning for the preparation of pickles. Up to 40 tomatoes are formed on each bunch, and they are spelled almost simultaneously, so that the crop is harvested in whole branches. They are transported and sold in the same form. The best varieties of tomatoes for small-fruited greenhouses:
- Pink cherry – a mid-early cherry tomato for greenhouses and greenhouses, grows up to 170 cm. Inflorescences are compact with 20-25 pink tomatoes, weighing 20 g. It is characterized by a rich taste and aroma. Productivity up to 5 kg with sq.m.
- Dessert is a tall indeterminate tomato, grows up to 2 m, therefore, requires garter branches. The plant is resistant to disease. Tomatoes weighing 20 g, the same round shape, sweet taste. Suitable for universal use..
- Golden bead – a tall early ripe hybrid, with small yellow-gold tomatoes, sweet taste, intense aroma.
Varieties of black tomatoes
Such tomatoes are called dark-fruited, because their color varies from lilac to black-brown. This is due to the natural pigment anthocyanin, which stains beets and eggplants. The use of black vegetables helps to reduce the risk of cancer, strengthen immunity, improve vision and normalize the functioning of the cardiovascular system. Among them are:
- Black Sea is a large-fruited vegetable with a thick peel and juicy pulp of purple color. Brings a high yield – more than 10 kg per sq.m.
- Black Baron – for exquisite taste he is called a real gourmet vegetable. The pulp is sweet and juicy, it is used to make juice, fruit drinks, salads. The bush must be planted and tied.
- Black gourmet is an indeterminate tomato, ripening begins 150 days after sowing seeds. The vegetables are in the shape of a perfect circle and black color..
- Black Prince – medium late tomato up to 1.5 m high, vegetables are dark brown.
- Icicle black – medium early vegetable 150 cm high. Tomatoes of an elongated shape, with a sharp tip, black and burgundy color.
- Gypsy is a mid-season, mid-height tomato. Large vegetables weighing 250-300 g, black and red, flattened round. The pulp is juicy, sweet, fleshy. Differs in amity of maturing. Resistant to disease, temperature changes.
Breeders are constantly working on creating new perfect hybrids for seasonal and year-round greenhouses. New high-yielding, transportable, tasty, tomatoes resistant to microclimate fluctuations, diseases, pests are being developed:
- Siberian trump card is a large-fruited tomato for growing on open and protected soils. Vegetables weighing up to 750 g, red-pink color, sweet juicy pulp.
- Stellate sturgeon is a determinant large-fruited productive hybrid for a greenhouse that requires tying. Vegetable grows to 1.5 kg, has a pleasant taste, intense aroma.
- Alliance F1 is an early ripe tomato of salad designation. Bright red vegetables weighing 130 g.
- Amber – an early ripening tomato, suitable for cultivation in the northern regions. The color of the tomatoes is bright yellow, the shape is round.
- Kostroma F1 is an early ripening tomato of universal use. Vegetables have a sweet taste, intense aroma, flattened round shape, weighing up to 150 g. Resistant to pathogens, temperature fluctuations.
- Samara F1 – characterized by high productivity, density of vegetables, shelf life and good transportability. The bush grows to 2.5 m, it necessarily requires tying and cutting of stepsons. Tomatoes of the same spherical shape, red, weighing 105 g.